Our Upcoming Presentations & Posters

2015 SETAC North America 36th Annual Meeting

2015 SETAC North America 36th Annual Meeting

Location:Salt Lake City, UT

Dates:November 1-5, 2015

The SETAC North America 36th Annual Meeting is a 5-day event featuring a variety of training, networking and learning opportunities. More than 2,300 scientists, assessors, regulators and managers will gather to share and discuss emerging research, regulatory developments and the latest methodologies in environmental toxicology and chemistry.

SETAC is one of Waterborne’s highest attended conferences. This year we are presenting authors on 13 posters and 5 platform presentations that share innovative work we’re doing across a broad spectrum of areas. Waterborne is supporting the SETAC organization by chairing three sessions and acting as co-instructor in a professional training course on Sunday.

This year we will be at booth 901 to introduce ourselves and share information about ways we’re helping clients. Stop by to say hello! We will also have hand-outs with our presentation and poster schedule. If you have questions about any of our presentations or our whereabouts at SETAC, email Casey Wisch at wischc@waterborne-env.com.

Waterborne's Presentations & Posters

Crop ProtectionPresentations

Bringing Ecological Context to Endangered Species Risk Assessments Using Population Modeling: Challenges, Opportunities, and a Path Forward

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PRESENTATION ID: 440

PRESENTATION DATE: Wednesday, November 4, 2015 at 8:00AM

LOCATION: Ballroom G

ABSTRACT:

Current screening-level stages of endangered species pesticide risk assessments rely on conservative estimation of exposure and effects based on spatial proximity of species habitat to locations of pesticide use and conservative effects thresholds (such as “1-in-a-million” individual mortality). These screening-level thresholds are designed to be highly protective, but are essentially arbitrary from an ecological standpoint. Despite subsequent refinements to the exposure and effects assessment (e.g., more realistic exposure views, species surrogacy and refined habitat delineation), it remains a challenge to interpret the risk of adverse effects to a species in an ecologically meaningful way. Population modeling has been recommended in the final steps of an assessment as an approach for providing greater ecological context through extrapolation of individual-level effects to outcomes relevant at the population-level. Given the large number and diversity of species involved in national-scale pesticide risk assessments, we propose a pragmatic tiered strategy for population modeling that aims to incorporate ecological relevance into risk decision criteria as early as possible in an assessment. We present a tiered approach where “generic” population models representative of species groups with common life history characteristics are applied in the early stages of an assessment to provide ecological context to screening-level thresholds. This first tier of population modeling can be useful to inform risk decision criteria and identify species which may require further evaluation using more complex (and resource-intensive) higher-tier population models. Using concrete examples, we describe how strategic data organization and exposure/effects refinements can effectively be combined with established population modeling approaches to add meaningful ecological perspective to pesticide risk decision criteria at each tier of a risk assessment. Successful management of endangered species will require development of a risk assessment framework that is scientifically robust and pragmatic.

Katherine Kapo, Matthew Kern, Daniel Perkins, Waterborne Environmental; Valery Forbes, Amelie Schmolke, University of Minnesota; Steven Bartell, Cardno Entrix; Robert Pastorok,  Integral Consulting, Inc.”Bringing Ecological Context to Endangered Species Risk Assessments Using Population Modeling: Challenges, Opportunities, and a Path Forward”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Human PharmaceuticalsPosters

Framework for Addressing Bioaccumulation Potential of Human Pharmaceuticals

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POSTER ID: RP027

PRESENTATION DATE: Thursday, November 5, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

The potential for human pharmaceuticals to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms is rapidly becoming an area of scientific and regulatory interest. Historically, bioaccumulation assessments are conducted after consideration of a chemical’s hydrophobicity (e.g. Kow). The current strategy for determining the bioaccumulation potential of a human pharmaceutical is identical in scope in that scientists are required to conduct an OECD 305 fish study if the Kow value of a given pharmaceutical is greater than a prescribed regulatory trigger value (e.g. Log Kow> 4). The physical-chemical knowledge (e.g. pKa) of the compound should be incorporated into this initial Kow assessment to better guide the need for a full “B” assessment. In many instances, the current strategy does not utilize the wealth of non-clinical and clinical data available on the absorption, disposition, metabolism and elimination (ADME) of the pharmaceutical of interest, which could be used to better inform scientists on important characteristics and physiological processes associated with that human pharmaceutical. It is important to recognize that fish have the ability to perform many of the same physiological processes that mammals perform, hence a pharmaceutical’s ADME characteristics could be similar in fish. These data can be used to understand the ability of a fish to absorb, distribute, biotransform and eliminate a human pharmaceutical. If needed, studies can be conducted utilizing methodologies widely used on the drug development process (e.g. in vitro metabolism assays) to understand the similarity between fish and mammals and better guide the testing overall strategy. By utilizing all the available information collected and methodologies employed during the drug development process of a human pharmaceutical, scientists can make a more informed decision regarding the need for bioaccumulation testing (i.e. OECD 305), potentially reduce the number of vertebrate animals used in laboratory studies and achieve an overall cost savings.

Duane Huggett, Nikki Maples-Reynolds, Waterborne Environmental. “Framework for Addressing Bioaccumulation Potential of Human Pharmaceuticals”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Water/Wastewater AssessmentPosters

Sucralose in Wastewater Effluent and Receiving Waters in the U.S.: An Environmental Exposure Assessment

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POSTER ID: MP032

PRESENTATION DATE: Monday, November 2, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

Down-the-drain exposure models provide a valuable screening-level tool for estimating environmental exposure to product ingredients which are treated and discharged at municipal wastewater treatment plants. We present an environmental exposure assessment for sucralose, an artificial sweetener used in a variety of consumer products. Exposure modeling was performed using the iSTREEM® model, a free and publically-available web-based model supported by the American Cleaning Institute (www.istreem.org) which estimated concentrations of sucralose in effluent and receiving waters across the U.S. at mean annual and low flow conditions. Wastewater treatment facility influent loadings of sucralose were estimated using per-capita usage derived from market sales volume combined with individual facility population served and daily flow estimates within the iSTREEM® model. The screening-level assessment used conservative assumptions for the exposure modeling including an assumption of zero removal during treatment and no in-stream decay, resulting in a representation of “worst-case” environmental exposure estimates. Environmental concentrations estimated by the model at mean annual flow conditions were comparable to sucralose concentrations typically expected to be observed in the field, with a 90th percentile predicted environmental concentration (“PEC”) in surface waters of approximately 1.9 µg/L. Maps of the estimated geographic distribution of river concentrations of sucralose are presented using geo-referenced concentration data generated by the iSTREEM® model. In addition to screening-level assessment using national estimates, a refined approach to the modeling was explored by incorporating spatial variation of chemical loading based on demographic factors associated with sucralose usage (e.g., prevalence of diabetes, obesity, etc.). Screening-level environmental exposure assessments such as the current modeling exercise provide an estimated distribution of environmental concentrations of a chemical of interest in a geographic context, which can be used to inform risk management and/or subsequent higher-tier assessment.

Katherine Kapo, Megan Sebasky, Raghu Vamshi, Duane Huggett, Christopher Holmes, Waterborne Environmental. “Sucralose in Wastewater Effluent and Receiving Waters in the U.S.: An Environmental Exposure Assessment”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Home & Personal Care ProductsPosters

Green-washing: What Is a Meaningful Ecolabel

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POSTER ID: WP217

PRESENTATION DATE: Wednesday, November 4, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

Currently there are over 400 ecolabels for food and consumer products in the global marketplace. These labels are marketing efforts informing the purchaser of a variety of claims of sustainability measures enacted by companies. The marketplace is flooded with several similar claims on whether a product is less hazardous, sustainable, organic, non-GMO, fair-trade, recyclable, recycled, carbon neutral, or biodegradable. Generally there are four types of labels in order of volume, 1) voluntary environmental certification programs, 2) self- or 3) cause-related claims and 4) governmentally regulated. The federal, some state, and International governments have limited direct roles in ecolabeling beyond mandatory hazard warning (e.g., pesticide or Prop. 65) or informational disclosures (EPA fuel economy, certified organic, WaterSense, or Energy Star). There are several third-party certification and quasi-governmental programs that lend credibility to an ecolabel; however, standardization or centralization of these programs are lacking. Several seals of approval overlap in required data for certification; however, a comprehensive comparison of each standard has not been performed. The US EPA and GAO are reviewing the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing program currently by reviewing a subset of ecolabeling in regards to building paints/coatings/removers, building flooring, and furniture; however, implications towards the general public are unknown. Several questions arise when considering comparison of ecolabeling standards. What would be the best way to implement meaningful change to ecolabel marketing? Develop a list and score each label? Who will collect the information and develop trustworthy comprehensive scoring standards for each product sector? How to engage all stakeholders to agree on the standards? Finally how does all the data collection conform to expanding regulations such as Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive, California’s Safer Consumer Products, and Washington’s Chemicals of High Concern to Children?

Nikki Maples-Reynolds, Duane Huggett, Waterborne Environmental.”Green-washing: What Is a Meaningful Ecolabel”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPosters

An Evaluation of Endpoint Sensitivity for Benthic Invertebrate Chronic Toxicity Tests

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POSTER ID: RP021

PRESENTATION DATE: Thursday, November 5, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

On October 26, 2007, sediment toxicity testing with benthic aquatic invertebrates became a conditional requirement as part of the Office of Pesticide Program’s ecological effects data requirement contained in 40 CFR Part 158 Subpart G. This action led to efforts to improve the consistency of test performance and streamline chronic life-cycle test methods with benthic invertebrates. A focal area of discussion pertaining to these efforts included critically evaluating the relative sensitivities of required test endpoints within tests and among tests with different species as well as the utility of specific endpoints for defining biological thresholds of effects associated with contaminant exposure. To provide clarity in these pursuits, it is also important to consider variability within control responses as the value of monitoring more sensitive endpoints may be muted by reduced statistical power due to high variability within some endpoints (perhaps associated with natural biological variability). In addition to exploring relative endpoint sensitivity, determining possible data redundancy associated with endpoint overlap is also critical for improving confidence for defining effects threshold based on these test endpoints and may also help manage laboratory resources. The Sediment Subcommittee of Crop Life America has compiled detailed data from chronic sediment toxicity tests with Chironomus dilutus, Hyalella azteca and Leptocheirus plumulosusbased on current USEPA draft test guidelines and this presentation provides an overview of the data analysis for these species. Key findings from this data evaluation will be reported in this presentation, along with recommendations for streamlining endpoints.

Jennifer Gates, Mark Cafarella, Waterborne Environmental; Ted Valenti, Syngenta; Bibek Sharma, FMC Corp Global Regulatory Sciences; Michael Bradley, Smithers Viscient; Alan Samel, DuPont Crop Protection; Jane Staveley, Exponent; Sean McGee, Bayer CropScience LP; Maike Habekost, BASF; Hank Krueger, Wildlife International.”An Evaluation of Endpoint Sensitivity for Benthic Invertebrate Chronic Toxicity Tests”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Industrial & Specialty ChemicalsPosters

Hepatic Biotransformation of 14C-Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and 14C-Decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4) in Fish, Birds and Mammals

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POSTER ID: RP028

PRESENTATION DATE: Thursday, November 5, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

When considering bioconcentration (BCF), bioaccumulation (BAF) and trophic magnification (TMF) assessments, biotransformation and elimination of a chemical are important processes within an organism to understand. Recent efforts have been made in extrapolating in vitro fish biotransformation data to a whole body BCF value in an effort to better guide the need for an OECD 305 fish bioconcentration study. By integrating biotransformation estimates into BCF models, a more realistic estimation of BCF can be calculated while providing a cost-effective assay that uses less vertebrate animals. Building on this single species extrapolation concept, biotransformation data from multiple species may be used to construct a biomagnification or trophic magnification model for a given chemical. Using 14C radiolabelled compounds and high performance liquid radiochromatography, in vitro metabolism data utilizing liver microsomes were developed for a cyclic siloxane, D5, and a linear siloxane, L4. Of the species investigated, mink demonstrated the greatest potential to biotransform D5 and L4 siloxane. 14C radiochromatograms show the loss of D5 and L4 siloxane, as well as increases in metabolite production over the 60 min incubation period. The percentage loss of D5 was similar with human and rat microsomes and greater then observed with fish. The percentage loss of D5 in birds is low compared to fish and mammals. Similar relationships for loss of parent hold true for L4 (kestrel data not available). These data suggest that D5 and L4 siloxane are biotransformed by a wide array of species, which can influence “B” assessments. In addition, these data can be used to estimate whole-body rates of metabolism for incorporation into predictive environmental assessments.

Duane Huggett, Waterborne Environmental; Mark Cantu, David Hala, University of North Texas; Jeanne Domoradzki, Debra McNett,Dow Corning Corporation.”Hepatic Biotransformation of 14C-Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and 14C-Decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4) in Fish, Birds and Mammals”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPosters

Using Generic Population Models to Evaluate the Potential for Adverse Effects in Endangered Species Risk Assessment: A Case Study Approach

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POSTER ID: WP214

PRESENTATION DATE: Wednesday, November 4, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

Population modeling can help evaluate exposure and effects of pesticides in an ecologically relevant context for species identified as potentially affected in the screening-level stages of an endangered species assessment. However, screening-level assessments at the national scale may initially identify a large number of potentially-affected species based on proximity of species habitat and pesticide exposure. A practical solution to address this challenge is the development of “first-tier” generic population models based on species groups with common exposure/effects and life history characteristics. We present case studies detailing the process of implementing national-scale generic population models across multiple ecological guilds (e.g., fish and birds) for a pesticide. By using key ecological parameters to differentiate between species groups, generic population models can be developed to conservatively evaluate population-level impacts of pesticides for representative species. Generic models were developed to describe population dynamics alternatively sensitive to (1) early life stage survival, (2) intermediate age survival, and (3) reproduction (fecundity). The generic models were used to help screen large numbers of representative endangered species in the initial phases of national scale assessments in several case study applications. This first-tier modeling approach can identify individual species that may require further analysis using species-specific higher-tier modeling, thus offering a pragmatic approach to focus assessment efforts and resources on the species with greatest actual risk. Our case study analysis demonstrates the practicality and effectiveness of applying ecological modeling (e.g., model selection and implementation) as part of a tiered strategy for adding ecological context and advancing the interpretation and efficacy of endangered species risk assessments.

Katherine Kapo, Matthew Kern, Daniel Perkins, Waterborne Environmental; Valery Forbes, Amelie Schmolke, University of Minnesota; Steven Bartell, Cardno Entrix; Robert Pastorok, Integral Consulting, Inc. “Using Generic Population Models to Evaluate the Potential for Adverse Effects in Endangered Species Risk Assessment: A Case Study Approach”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Veterinary MedicinesPosters

Spatial Technologies to Place Veterinary Medicine Aquatic Exposure Concentrations into Risk Context

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POSTER ID: WP221

PRESENTATION DATE: Wednesday, November 4, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

A case study in which spatial technologies were applied to characterize the potential for aquatic exposure from the excretion of beef cattle treated with veterinary pharmaceuticals will be demonstrated following techniques similar to the higher tiers of USEPA’s aquatic exposure framework. GIS was used to establish high versus low risk regions of exposure potential across the US. Multiple regions representing a variety of beef cattle characteristics and climatic conditions were identified as having the highest vulnerability potential. From within each region, a single vulnerable watershed was selected for watershed-scale modeling. The importance of the watershed selection places is that it places the modeling results into national context and promotes confidence that the results represent a realistic intense-use scenario that can be applied to other U.S. beef regions. For each watershed modeled, local factors relevant to simulating veterinary medicines in surface water were identified using spatial data on feedlot densities, pastured cattle lands, and croplands treated with manure. While a fate and transport model ultimately calculated the concentration of drug in the environment, GIS was used to measure the distribution of landscape factors influencing exposure and place the concentrations into the larger national risk perspective. The workflow to achieve a representative watershed for higher tier modeling will be presented. Examples using geospatial data to define vulnerability at the region and watershed scales will be discussed. Refer to the poster (in the same session) titled, “Higher-tier surface water exposure modeling approach of veterinary pharmaceuticals administered to beef cattle” for a detailed view of how USEPA’s Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM) was modified to simulate transport of the manure-bound drug to surface water.

Joshua Amos, Ishadeep Khanijo, Christopher Holmes, Mark Cheplick, W. Martin Williams, Amy Ritter, Waterborne Environmental; Joseph Robinson, Zoetis.”Spatial Technologies to Place Veterinary Medicine Aquatic Exposure Concentrations into Risk Context”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Water/Wastewater AssessmentPresentations

What’s The Functional Solubility? The Challenges and Limitations Faced When Working With Difficult to Test Substances in Aquatic Matrices

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PRESENTATION ID: 176

PRESENTATION DATE: Monday, November 2, 2015 at 1:40PM

LOCATION: Ballroom I

ABSTRACT:

Aquatic ecotoxicology data are a key component of regulatory environmental risk assessment of chemicals. Due to the physico-chemical properties of some chemicals, it can be difficult to generate meaningful data that adequately satisfy regulatory requirements described in the testing guidelines. Difficulties can include solubility, delivering the chemical to water and maintaining consistent test concentrations. Various non-standard methodologies have been developed to help address these chemicals which are difficult to test. An overview of these non-standard methodologies and certain physico-chemical properties along with their impacts on testing-related decision making will be provided. In addition, a theoretical case study involving a hydrophobic, highly sorptive test compound with a short hydrolytic half-life will be discussed along with the decision logic for practical application in the aquatic laboratory.

Mark Cafarella, Jennifer Gates, Waterborne Environmental; Michael Lee, Eli Lilly and Company.”What’s The Functional Solubility? The Challenges and Limitations Faced When Working With Difficult to Test Substances in Aquatic Matrices”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPosters

Refined Aquatic Exposure Methods for Species Focused Threatened and Endangered Species Risk Assessments

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POSTER ID: MP090

PRESENTATION DATE: Monday, November 2, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

Standard tiered exposure methods allow for screening level deterministic risk assessments in the FIFRA framework. With additional sensitivity endpoints established for threatened and endangered species, the standard tools, even when refined with aquatic bins, often lead to unresolved risk concerns. Several case studies will be presented that use species specific data on habitat and biology to establish refined exposure estimates relevant to the listed species for use in a species focused ecological risk assessment. Species in groups such as cave dwelling aquatic invertebrates, river mussels, and isolated vernal pool systems require different aquatic exposure tools (leaching models, watershed scale models, edge-of-field models with downstream dilution, etc.) and an integration of these tools with species focused landscape refinements, knowledge of proposed uses and the incorporation of existing federal protections. The refined exposure estimation, integrated with surrogate species dose response curves or species sensitivity distributions for multiple surrogates, results in a species focused probabilistic risk expression.

Nathan Snyder, Kevin Wright, Joshua Amos, Waterborne Environmental; Aldos Barefoot, Dupont Crop Protection. “Refined Aquatic Exposure Methods for Species Focused Threatened and Endangered Species Risk Assessments”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPosters

The Impact of Variability in Non-Target Terrestrial Plant Studies on Endpoint Selection

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POSTER ID: TP048

PRESENTATION DATE: Tuesday, November 3, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

Inherent variability in non-target terrestrial plant testing is an ongoing issue with respect to the use and interpretation of these data for risk assessment. These standardized study guidelines were initially designed to calculate ER25 values for various effect measures, including sub-lethal measurements of growth. Statistical differences from control groups are often a product of natural variability, with no apparent biological consequence associated with these differences. This can lead to a requirement to conduct tier-2 studies with some species, the appearance of non-monotonic dose-response curves which are simply natural variability in the data, or an assumption of risk when there are statistical differences from controls of even a few percent. This issue has recently been associated with the requirement to generate a NOER for each study type for use in endangered species assessments. The 2012 U.S. EPA Ecological Effects Test Guidelines (OCSPP 850.4100 and 850.4150) further state that if a NOER (NOEC) cannot be determined, the dose at which there is a 5% effect should be estimated and used instead. The attempt to derive a NOER or 5% effect level and the associated risk assessment conclusions drawn from these values, which may simply represent natural biological variability, can overestimate risk. To address this concern, we evaluated historical data from standard seedling emergence and vegetative vigor studies to determine the variability in the controls for shoot height and shoot weight. Results were compiled for each combination of study type, species, and effect measure. Our findings indicate the effect level that can be reliably determined as being significantly different from the controls for each combination of species and effect measure and by what statistical test. In addition, we discuss the size effect that can be estimated reliably from regression models and the uncertainties arising from model selection.

Jane Staveley, Josie Nusz, Exponent; Daniel Edwards, BASF Corporation; John Green, DuPont / Applied Statistics Group; Kevin Henry, NovaSource / Tessenderlo Kerley, Inc.; Matthew Kern, Waterborne Environmental.”The Impact of Variability in Non-Target Terrestrial Plant Studies on Endpoint Selection”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Home & Personal Care ProductsPosters

Development of iSTREEM® 2.0, New Enhancements for Down-The-Drain Model to Support Environmental Exposure Assessments across Multiple Commodity Groups

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PRESENTATION ID: RP046

PRESENTATION DATE: Thursday, November 5, 2015

POSTER LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

The iSTREEM® model (“in-stream exposure model”), a free and publically-available web-based model supported by the American Cleaning Institute (istreem.org), provides a means to estimate chemical concentrations in effluent, receiving waters, and drinking water intakes (DWI) across the conterminous U.S. as well a number of watersheds in Canada under mean annual and low-flow (7Q10) conditions. This presentation will discuss recent upgrades made to enhance the model, underlying data, algorithm and presentation of results leading to the release of iSTREEM® 2.0. iSTREEM® 2.0 incorporates geographic locations of over 12,000 wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) facilities along a U.S.-wide river network of effluent-impacted river reaches, providing a framework to integrate geographic data to assess environmental risk for multiple scenarios of interest. WWTP facilities and associated facility level information were derived from the latest available USEPA Clean Watershed Needs Surveys. The river network used by iSTREEM® 2.0 was upgraded from previous iSTREEM® versions to a higher-resolution hydrologic dataset based on the NHDPlus version 2, which includes estimated mean annual and low flow (7Q10) data based on USGS stream gage measurements. The relationship between WWTP facilities and DWI locations to the river network was established applying techniques developed by USEPA. Pre-calculation of certain data and efficiency improvements to model algorithm has enabled simulation runs to complete in significantly less time compared to prior versions of the model. Model results are presented in a standardized manner for consistent results communication across all users, and are provided in a readily usable format (MS Excel) for easy interpretation and further customization of result presentation. Major assumptions used in constructing the model will be discussed. Recent upgrades and developments are geared to expand adoption of the model by a wide variety of users as an environmental risk assessment tool across multiple commodity groups (personal care products, pharmaceuticals, food additives, pesticides, etc.) that require internal or regulatory environmental assessments. The discussion will also include a comparison of model results between the prior version of iSTREEM® and latest iSTREEM® 2.0 to examine the impact of recent upgrades on the national distribution of predicted environmental concentrations (PEC’s) across the U.S.

Raghu Vamshi, Katherine Kapo, Megan Sebasky, Christopher Holmes, Waterborne Environmental; Paul DeLeo, Darci Ferrer,American Cleaning Institute. “Development of iSTREEM® 2.0, New Enhancements for Down-The-Drain Model to Support Environmental Exposure Assessments across Multiple Commodity Groups”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPresentations

Development of Contributing Factors Influencing the Physical Description of Spray Drift Deposition

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PRESENTATION ID: 682

PRESENTATION DATE: Thursday, November 5, 2015 at 3:40PM

LOCATION: Room 251 A-B

ABSTRACT:

Agricultural spray drift management is an important component of risk mitigation in cases where there is potential exposure to non-target organisms in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Within the USEPA ecological risk assessment framework, spray drift characterization is of considerable importance, especially when considering herbicidal effects on non-target plants. Current tools for estimation of spray drift exposure are not consistent with farm equipment technologies and formulation-specific characteristics. These tools, such as AGDRIFT and AGDISP, are based on empirical relationships that are founded on datasets that do not represent current spray drift reduction technologies. By implementing a physically-based model, a risk assessor might be able to pair formulation specific information and a possible range of environmental variables to better characterize potential risk of from spray drift exposure. Unfortunately, a physically-based model that would better represent liquid spray dynamics and associated spray drift and deposition has not yet been developed. Furthermore, there are no clear indications of what parameters of liquid composition and environmental variables would be needed for use in development of a physically-based model. This work explores statistical relationships between liquid properties (e.g. surface tension, particle size spectra, liquid viscosity) and variable wind speed conditions using drift deposition data within a wind tunnel framework. A stepwise regression model was used to rank the importance of variables affecting the outcome from the deposition curves. Results suggest relative importance of measured formulation properties and environmental variables for consideration in the development of a physically-based model that may better represent estimates of spray drift.

Rohith Gali, Daniel Perkins, Farah Abi-Akar, Kevin Wright, Waterborne Environmental; Greg Kruger, University of Nebraska; Lincoln Robert Morriss, FMC Corp Global Regulatory Sciences. “Development of Contributing Factors Influencing the Physical Description of Spray Drift Deposition”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPosters

A National Scale Threatened and Endangered Species Risk Assessment Process to Prioritize Assessment Refinements for Insecticide Use Patterns

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POSTER ID: MP087

PRESENTATION DATE: Monday, November 2, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

A national scale endangered risk assessment requires consideration of a large amount of effects and exposure data related to over 1500 listed species. An efficient and pragmatic tiered approach offers a means of effectively focusing risk management efforts on species at greatest risk while minimizing resources expended on those not at risk from a pesticide. Without effective screening, these assessments may overwhelm the available resources and limit the ability to adequately protect species from stressors that pose the greatest risk to their continued existence and recovery. Screening level risk assessments can be very effective in this prioritization process at the initial steps, provided the methods allow for the incorporation of reasonable descriptions of habitat and effects. In these generally protective initial steps, the assessment endpoint should consider the overall protection goal and the result of combining protective effects and exposure methods. Once an effective screening assessment has been completed, more sophisticated methods can be applied to provide a better risk characterization and increased certainty around risk conclusions for cases where the potential for risk has been established. The selection of effects data, exposure modeling estimates and geospatial species and use site locations should be directed towards a risk characterization that gives a risk manager an index for the likelihood and significance of an estimated effect on the species. We present a novel tiered approach designed to integrate established endangered species risk assessment methodologies, knowledge from FIFRA risk assessments and higher risk analysis techniques. Examples are incorporated to illustrate these methods and to move the evaluation towards a probabilistic expression of risk relevant to listed species.

Matthew Kern, Nathan Snyder, Waterborne Environmental; Aldos Barefoot, Mark Holliday, DuPont Crop Protection. “A National Scale Threatened and Endangered Species Risk Assessment Process to Prioritize Assessment Refinements for Insecticide Use Patterns”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPresentations

Evaluating the Relative Sensitivity of Endpoints Generated During Midge Life-Cycle Sediment Toxicity Tests

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PRESENTATION ID: 606

PRESENTATION DATE: Thursday, November 5, 2015 at 8:20AM

LOCATION: Ballroom D

ABSTRACT:

Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are used as model test organisms for evaluating the potential toxicity of chemicals sorbed to sediments. The guidance document “Methods for Measuring the Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Sediment-associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates” (EPA 600/R-99/064) released in March 2000 details procedures for conducting life-cycle tests with midges. There are ongoing efforts to revise certain aspects of the guidance document and members of the SETAC Midge Chronic Testing Working Group are providing technical insight with the aim of further advancing the test method. One area of potential revision pertains to the evaluation of appropriate test endpoints. Currently, lethality-based endpoints for the life-cycle test include larval, pupal and adult survival, while sublethal endpoints include larval growth, adult emergence (total/percent, cumulative rate, time to first emergence, and time to death), and reproduction (sex ratio, time to oviposition, mean eggs/female, egg cases/treatment, and egg hatchability). High variability in control response and redundancy of information gained from similar observations prompted scientific inquiry concerning the utility and/or necessity of some endpoints for defining biological effect thresholds. Streamlining the number of measured endpoints could improve the efficiency of the test method and also provide researchers with greater confidence that observed effects are indeed related to contaminant exposure and not manifested merely as a result of natural biological variability. Members of the Crop Life America Sediment Subcommittee team compiled midge toxicity data from studies completed with agrochemicals for retrospective analysis to gain greater understanding of the relative sensitivity of endpoints from the midge life-cycle study. The purpose of this presentation is to briefly review findings of the aforementioned effort and discuss implications for future midge life-cycle testing efforts.

Theodore Valenti, Syngenta; Michael Bradley, Smithers Viscient; Jennifer Gates, Mark Cafarella, Waterborne Environmental; Jeffrey Giddings, Compliance Services International; Hank Krueger, Wildlife International; Sean McGee, Bayer CropScience LP; Alan Samel, DuPont Crop Protection; Bibek Sharma, FMC Corp Global Regulatory Sciences; Jane Staveley, Exponent; Jiafan Wang, BASF Agriculture Solutions. “Evaluating the Relative Sensitivity of Endpoints Generated During Midge Life-Cycle Sediment Toxicity Tests”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPosters

Selection of Effects Data for National Scale Pesticide Endangered Species Assessments

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POSTER ID: MP091

PRESENTATION DATE: Monday, November 2, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

The selection of appropriate toxicity endpoints used in an endangered species risk assessment is a critical phase in the analysis. A significant amount of toxicity data for non-target species is generated to support regional and global pesticide registrations as required by multiple regulatory authorities. Additionally, data from peer reviewed literature may also be available that can be used in the effects characterization. Determining a method for how this data will be considered prior to starting the assessment can is essential. A species surrogacy analysis can be one effective tool in selecting toxicity data that is most relevant for use in risk assessment for federally listed species. The core of this analysis is to make taxonomic associations between the species used in available toxicity studies with those listed species being considered in the assessment. This involves organizing listed species and laboratory species taxonomically and matching those species with the greatest taxonomic similarities. This analysis provides a better alternative to simply selecting a single laboratory species to represent the assumed toxicity of large groups of listed species. As part of this analysis, the relevance of experimental designs used for the toxicity studies should be considered prior to making species surrogacy conclusions. Information such as route of exposure, study duration, concentration/dose tested, endpoints measured and dose response relationships must all be considered. Additionally, species habitat requirements and other life history characteristics can be evaluated to help define species surrogacy assignments. Scientific judgment and data quality assessments are required to select surrogate toxicity data that best represents listed species in the endangered species risk assessment. Where possible, uncertainty in surrogacy assignments should be captured in the analysis. This presentation provides an example of how such methodology can be incorporated into a national-scale endangered species assessment.

 

Matthew Kern, Katherine Kapo, Waterborne Environmental; Alan Samel, DuPont Crop Protection.”Selection of Effects Data for National Scale Pesticide Endangered Species Assessments”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Veterinary MedicinesPosters

Higher-Tier Surface Water Exposure Modeling Approach of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Administered to Beef Cattle

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POSTER ID: WP210

PRESENTATION DATE: Wednesday, November 4, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

Watershed scale exposure modeling of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water was conducted following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Tier-2 drinking water pesticide exposure modeling approach. Three potential sources of veterinary pharmaceuticals administered to beef cattle were modeled – feedlots without runoff collection ponds (less than 1000 head), agricultural fields applied with manure collected from the feedlots, and pasture. Runoff and erosion from these sources were modeled and combined and inputted into a waterbody. The Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM) used in the FOCUS Surface Water and Groundwater model software (winPRZM) was modified to simulate a feedlot and pasture. PRZM 3.12 was used to model an agricultural field. EXAMS was used to model the surface waterbody (index reservoir), used by USPEA in drinking water risk assessments. Enhancements to winPRZM included having options to model timing of entry and exit of beef cattle on the feedlot and pasture and model constant mass of active ingredient in feedlots if degradation rate in manure in unknown. PRZM uses runoff curve number method for runoff estimation and USLE method for erosion estimation. The 90th percentile concentrations for peak, 4-day, 21-day, 60-day, 90-day and annual average exposure durations were estimated in the waterbody based on 30-year daily model and annual applications. The “application rates” of active ingredient to feedlot and pasture were estimated based on daily release rate of the active ingredient of the pharmaceutical in manure. The application rate of active ingredient in manure applied to agricultural land was based on daily release rate and phosphorus requirement of corn grain/silage. USEPA’s standard Tier-2 crop scenarios and weather files were used as such. The landscape metrics were derived from the GIS analysis of watersheds to estimate percent watershed area contributing to feedlots, pasture, and agricultural land applied with manure to model the watershed level index reservoir. The GIS analysis for estimation of percent contributions from each source is discussed in another poster titled “Spatial technologies to place veterinary medicine aquatic exposure concentrations into risk context” in this session.

Ishadeep Khanijo, Christopher Holmes, Amy Ritter, Joshua Amos, Mark Cheplick, W. Martin Williams, Waterborne Environmental.”Higher-Tier Surface Water Exposure Modeling Approach of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals Administered to Beef Cattle”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPosters

Species Focused Co-Occurrence and Proximity Analysis for Refined Terrestrial Exposure Estimates for Threatened and Endangered Species Risk Assessments

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POSTER ID: MP092

PRESENTATION DATE: Monday, November 2, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

According to USEPA and the Services, endangered species (ES) assessments for plant protection products (PPP) must start by identifying an action area where exposure is possible. Screening level datasets used in these co-occurrence or proximity analyses may lead to unresolved risks in deterministic risk assessments. Therefore, these multi-species assessments across many taxa require robust and efficient data and resource management. Spatial analyses require use of reliable species location and PPP use patterns, as well as refinement options to address overlap where specific habitat requirements (such as cave dwelling) allow one to refine exposure potential. A case study is presented to highlight areas of needed improvements in spatial data, including species ranges based on USFWS Critical Habitat spatial data and NatureServe elemental occurrence (EO) data, as well as pesticide use areas. Species-specific physical and biological descriptors were used to define habitat in the absence of spatial location data or to refine habitat when species range extends beyond the primary constituency elements. Multiple years of crop location data coupled with habitat locations were used to establish probabilities of species’ occurrence in locations of potential exposure in a representative year, or all years taken together (worst case). The relative proportion of suitable habitat in relation to urban and agricultural uses can be used to prioritize efforts when dealing with large number of species. Drift distance relationships may be used to express exposure spatially that, when integrated with dose response curves, allow for the creation of joint probability curves for individual habitat units or species total habitat areas. All these tools and refinements need to be included in a streamlined, hopefully more or less automated approach for the efficient, multi-tiered assessment of risks to ES populations from use PPPs under normal field conditions.

Joshua Amos, Nathan Snyder, Megan Sebasky, Waterborne Environmental; Hugo Ochoa-Acuna, DuPont Crop Protection. “Species Focused Co-Occurrence and Proximity Analysis for Refined Terrestrial Exposure Estimates for Threatened and Endangered Species Risk Assessments”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPosters

Passerine Dietary (LC50) Test: Challenges and Utility in Deriving an Acute Endpoint for Pesticide Registration in the U.S.

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POSTER ID: WP066

PRESENTATION DATE: Wednesday, November 4, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall

ABSTRACT:

Since 2007, acute oral studies with passerine birds have been required for pesticide registration under the revised 40 CFR Part 158 data requirements. Many studies have been completed for new pesticide registrations or as part of the Registration Review data call-in (DCI) process. The primary challenge with the successful completion of an acute oral study is the propensity for passerine birds to regurgitate test material after administration via gavage or capsule. Approximately one-third of studies conducted to date have resulted in birds regurgitating the dose which can prevent determination of a definitive LD50. This can result in a regulatory data gap and presumed risk for passerine species. In 2012, EPA published guidance that provided alternatives for deriving an acute passerine endpoint when regurgitation is observed in the acute oral (LD50) study. Proposed alternatives include: testing additional passerine species, using the dose-level below that which regurgitation occurred as the acute endpoint, or conducting a sub-acute dietary (LC50) study (OCSPP Guideline 850.2200) using the species that presented the greatest regurgitation response in the acute oral toxicity test. The guidance indicates that the dietary concentration endpoint (LC50) will be converted to a dietary dose endpoint (dietary LD50) using the estimated ingested dose based on food consumption measured in the study. Although the avian acute oral guideline (OCSPP 850.2100) has recently been updated to address issues related to conducting acute oral toxicity tests with passerines, the current OCSPP 850.2200 only provides specific guidance for the testing of young northern bobwhite quail and mallard ducks. For passerine species, food avoidance over the 5-day period can lead to starvation confounding determination of toxic effects related to the test substance. In addition, food avoidance caused starvation in studies often results in similar dietary intake of the test substance across test concentrations leading to very flat slopes and inaccurate estimates of the dietary LD50. Food avoidance in this context results in the ingestion of a Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD), where the dose appears to plateau thus potentially restricting the birds to insufficient food for their survival over the 5-day exposure period. Use of the MTD endpoint combined with the overall uncertainty in interpretation of the results from the dietary study are discussed in the context of the avian risk assessment process.

Max Feken, Syngenta; Twyla Blickley, Dow Agrosciences / ACES; Kristin Brugger, DuPont Crop Protection; Tiffany Carro, DuPont Crop Protection; Mark Christ, SynTech Research Laboratory Services; Peter Edwards, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC; Timothy Fredricks, Monsanto Company; Kevin Henry, NovaSource / Tessenderlo Kerley, Inc; Matthew Kern, Waterborne Environmental; Sean McGee, Bayer CropScience; Dwayne R.J. Moore, Intrinsik Environmental Sciences; Spencer Mortensen, Stephanie Plautz, BASF Corporation; Jane Staveley, Exponent; Faith Womack, Cheminova, Inc. “Passerine Dietary (LC50) Test: Challenges and Utility in Deriving an Acute Endpoint for Pesticide Registration in the U.S.”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Veterinary MedicinesPresentations

Expanding Our Knowledge of Exposure as Part of the Environmental Assessment for a Veterinary Medicine

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PRESENTATION ID: 643

PRESENTATION DATE: Thursday, November 5, 2015 at 10:40AM

LOCATION: Ballroom H

ABSTRACT:

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), evaluates whether significant environmental impacts would occur with the approval of new animal drugs pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The approval process may require the preparation of an environmental assessment (EA), which contains sections addressing problem formulation, environmental fate, exposure, effects and risk characterization. Using a recent EA as a framework, this presentation will focus on the refinement of environmental exposure estimates (i.e., Predicted Environmental Concentrations, or PECs) using spatial techniques to identify representative and protective environmental scenarios for the use of this product, and link them to exposure models commonly used in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) pesticide registration process. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to identify regions of high versus low exposure potential across the US based on beef cattle characteristics and climatic conditions. From within each region, a single vulnerable watershed was selected and characterized for watershed-scale modeling. This process of watershed selection places exposure results into national context and promotes confidence that they are representative of realistic intense-use scenarios protective of other U.S. beef regions. Watershed scale exposure modeling for surface water was conducted following the USEPA Tier-2 drinking water pesticide exposure modeling approach. Three potential sources of chemical were modeled: feedlots, agricultural fields applied with manure collected from the feedlots, and pasture. Runoff and erosion inputs to surface water from these sources were modeled over a 30-year timeframe to produce final PECs suitable for use in the effects portion of the EA. The framework, methodology, results and lessons learned will be presented as part of this platform.

Christopher Holmes, Ishadeep Khanijo, Joshua Amos, Amy Ritter, Mark Cheplick, W. Martin Williams, Waterborne Environmental; Joseph Robinson, Zoetis.”Expanding Our Knowledge of Exposure as Part of the Environmental Assessment for a Veterinary Medicine”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

Crop ProtectionPresentations

Risk Assessment for Mixtures of Agricultural Chemicals in Surface Water; A SETAC Pellston Workshop Update

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PRESENTATION ID: 713

PRESENTATION DATE: Thursday, November 5, 2015 at 4:00PM

LOCATION: Ballroom E

ABSTRACT:

In March of 2015, a SETAC Pellston workshop was held to help inform decision making around aquatic mixture risk assessments of chemicals using exposure scenarios and decision trees. The efforts were broadly grouped into three areas of chemical origination: agriculture, domestic, and urban influences (a separate integration group was charged with looking at overarching issues). The agricultural land use combined effect measures with exposure scenarios of chemical mixtures for field and catchment-scale using procedures that are recognized and used in regulatory schemes in the U.S., Europe and other parts of the world. Chemicals modeled were those used in crop protection and livestock production, and were considered to occur as mixtures (in time and space). Two types of scenarios were defined including a single unit that could represent a variety of typical chemical input locations (e.g., feed lot, agricultural field, pasture, aquaculture, biosolids applications, etc). The second scenario was multi-unit, combining several different uses within a single catchment/watershed. These assessments considered inputs from spray drift, surface runoff and erosion, and/or tile drainage systems on a daily basis over an extended period of time (e.g., from one to 30 years). Case studies included a single unit scenario modeled as a wheat field in Eastern UK, consisting of crop protection applications of 13 substances over the course of the year. This scenario used standard FOCUS soil, weather and receiving water body information for consistency. The case study of a multi-unit catchment scenario consisted of a combination of corn fields, pasture, and feedlot inputs based in part on the US EPA Iowa corn scenario used in pesticide registration evaluations. Manure from treated cattle containing two different pharmaceutical substances (a parasiticide and a macrolide antibiotic) was applied to corn fields as fertilizer, and also originated from pastured cattle. Twelve different active substances for crop protection were modeled on the corn field. These applications ranged from a pre-plant herbicide to a late-year fungicide application. A risk assessment decision tree looked at estimated environmental concentrations of all active substances on a daily basis, with subsequent mixture risks evaluated according to methodologies developed under a separate effects workgroup within the same Pellston workshop. A summary of the framework, methodologies and results will be presented.

Christopher Holmes, Waterborne Environmental; Mick J. Hamer, Syngenta; Colin Brown, University of York ; Russell Jones, Bayer CropScience; Lorraine Maltby, The University of Sheffield; Eric Silberhorn, US Food & Drug Administration; Jerold Scott Teeter, Elanco Animal Health; Michael Warne, DSITI; Lennart Weltje, BASF SE.”Risk Assessment for Mixtures of Agricultural Chemicals in Surface Water; A SETAC Pellston Workshop Update”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.