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Publications: Agriculture and Food

PresentationsAgriculture and Food2017

Prospective Methods for Characterizing Likelihood of Pollinator Protection Resulting from Programmatic Conservation Initiatives

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SETAC Session Title:  Assessing the Role of Contaminants in the Decline of Prairie Complex Pollinators
Presentation Date: Tuesday November 14, 2017
Presentation Time: 10:40 AM
Location: Session Room 101AJ

Over 4,000 species of native bees are responsible for crop pollination activity in the United States, the majority in solitary nests. County-, State-, and Federal-scale initiatives and programs have been put in motion toward programmatic protection of pollinators. Programmatic initiatives tend to focus on habitat creation, preservation, or restoration and should be accounted for in conservation efforts to protect pollinator species. These habitat initiatives may be a simple means to rapidly respond to pressures to implement protection measures, but may be less impactful or less appropriate for certain species of pollinators than others. A methodology for evaluating programmatic conservation initiatives and associated impact on pollinator protection is warranted and would require more specific identification of species that are the recipients of protection. The specific characteristics and requirements of the identified species should be addressed. Difficult and important discussions about cost-benefit and likelihood of protection success may be more fruitful if a common methodology is followed. We present preliminary methods that benchmark characteristics of land use change/management and pollinator life history features through programmatic conservation initiatives that yield the most benefit for pollinator protection. Land use change, prompted by potential conservation efforts, is systematically compared to focal species’ requirements according to their life history traits and habitat requirements. As an example, we use the Rusty Patched Bumble Bee (Bombus affinis), a species recent listed as endangered, as a test case for benchmarking potential protection through the introduction of different conservation initiatives, such as creation of conservation reserve program land, pollinator corridor creation, cover crops, and integrated pest management.

Daniel Perkins (Waterborne Environmental), Amelie Schmolke (Waterborne Environmental), Farah Abi-Akar (Waterborne Environmental), Andrew Jacobson (Waterborne Environmental). Prospective Methods for Characterizing Likelihood of Pollinator Protection Resulting from Programmatic Conservation Initiatives. Platform SETAC 2017. Minneapolis, MN.

PostersAgriculture and Food2016

Modeling Watershed-Scale Cover Crop Impact on Nitrate Availability and Transport

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Presented at the 2016 Hypoxia Task Force Meeting in St. Louis, MO.

Daniel Perkins, PhD., Rohith Gali, PhD. (Waterborne) and Caroline Wade (Illinois Corn Growers Association).”Modeling Watershed-Scale Cover Crop Impact on Nitrate Availability and Transport“.Poster. Hypoxia Task Force Spring 2016.

Papers & ReportsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2016

Investigating Past Range Dynamics for a Weed of Cultivation, Silene vulgaris

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Since the last glacial maximum (LGM), many plant and animal taxa have expanded their ranges by migration from glacial refugia. Weeds of cultivation may have followed this trend or spread globally following the expansion of agriculture or ruderal habitats associated with human-mediated disturbance. We tested whether the range expansion of the weed Silene vulgaris across Europe fit the classical model of postglacial expansion from southern refugia, or followed known routes of the expansion of human agricultural practices. We used species distribution modeling to predict spatial patterns of postglacial expansion and contrasted these with the patterns of human agricultural expansion. A population genetic analysis using microsatellite loci was then used to test which scenario was better supported by spatial patterns of genetic diversity and structure. Genetic diversity was highest in southern Europe and declined with increasing latitude. Locations of ancestral demes from genetic cluster analysis were consistent with areas of predicted refugia. Species distribution models showed the most suitable habitat in the LGM on the southern coasts of Europe. These results support the typical postglacial northward colonization from southern refugia while refuting the east-to-west agricultural spread as the main mode of expansion for S. vulgaris. We know that S. vulgaris has recently colonized many regions (including North America and other continents) through human-mediated dispersal, but there is no evidence for a direct link between the Neolithic expansion of agriculture and current patterns of genetic diversity of S. vulgaris in Europe. Therefore, the history of range expansion of S. vulgaris likely began with postglacial expansion after the LGM, followed by more recent global dispersal by humans.

Sebasky, M. E., Keller, S. R. and Taylor, D. R. (2016), Investigating past range dynamics for a weed of cultivation, Silene vulgaris. Ecol Evol. doi:10.1002/ece3.2250

PostersAgriculture and Food, Home and Personal Care Products, Industrial and Specialty Chemicals2015

Green-washing: What Is a Meaningful Ecolabel

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PRESENTATION DATE: Wednesday, November 4, 2015

LOCATION: Exhibit Hall


Currently there are over 400 ecolabels for food and consumer products in the global marketplace. These labels are marketing efforts informing the purchaser of a variety of claims of sustainability measures enacted by companies. The marketplace is flooded with several similar claims on whether a product is less hazardous, sustainable, organic, non-GMO, fair-trade, recyclable, recycled, carbon neutral, or biodegradable. Generally there are four types of labels in order of volume, 1) voluntary environmental certification programs, 2) self- or 3) cause-related claims and 4) governmentally regulated. The federal, some state, and International governments have limited direct roles in ecolabeling beyond mandatory hazard warning (e.g., pesticide or Prop. 65) or informational disclosures (EPA fuel economy, certified organic, WaterSense, or Energy Star). There are several third-party certification and quasi-governmental programs that lend credibility to an ecolabel; however, standardization or centralization of these programs are lacking. Several seals of approval overlap in required data for certification; however, a comprehensive comparison of each standard has not been performed. The US EPA and GAO are reviewing the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing program currently by reviewing a subset of ecolabeling in regards to building paints/coatings/removers, building flooring, and furniture; however, implications towards the general public are unknown. Several questions arise when considering comparison of ecolabeling standards. What would be the best way to implement meaningful change to ecolabel marketing? Develop a list and score each label? Who will collect the information and develop trustworthy comprehensive scoring standards for each product sector? How to engage all stakeholders to agree on the standards? Finally how does all the data collection conform to expanding regulations such as Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive, California’s Safer Consumer Products, and Washington’s Chemicals of High Concern to Children?

Nikki Maples-Reynolds, Duane Huggett, Waterborne Environmental.”Green-washing: What Is a Meaningful Ecolabel”. SETAC Salt Lake City November 2015.

PostersAgriculture and Food2014

Data Mining Strategies For Species Life History Characteristics to Support Population Modeling in Endangered Species Risk Assessment

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Population modeling has been identified as a valuable tool to support risk assessment of listed threatened and endangered species. While a variety of population (and more generally, ecological) modeling approaches and platforms exist, their application is frequently limited to a small number of specific species having an abundance of toxicity and life history data available in the literature and/or generated in parallel to the development of a particular model. Conversely, national-scale endangered species assessment may initially identify a large number of species that may be potentially impacted based on an initial proximity assessment of species locations and chemical exposure. This disparity points to the need for evaluating similarities in available life history characteristics across multiple species to identify relevant groupings of species as well as the data-rich species (endangered or non-endangered) which are the most appropriate surrogates for one or more endangered species of interest for a given risk scenario in population modeling. Starting with high-level taxonomic classifications and using a combination of data synthesis and quantitative clustering techniques, we demonstrate an approach for organizing available basic life history information to “drill down” to species characteristics and groupings most relevant to a given risk scenario, and/or a given species of interest. This process can yield useful information to optimize the design and implementation of population modeling (and the risk assessment process in general) by providing a systematic means to focus technical resources on species of greatest relevance to the goals of a particular assessment. While further evaluation and data collection from literature and other sources is often a necessary component in the development of population models, this process can be made more efficient through the application of effective filtering tools.

Katherine E. Kapo, Matthew E. Kern, Joshua Amos, Chris M. Holmes, Nathan Snyder. Data Mining Strategies For Species Life History Characteristics to Support Population Modeling in Endangered Species Risk Assessment. SETAC North America 35th Annual Meeting, Vancover, B.C. November 14, 2014.

PostersAgriculture and Food2014

Advancing Effective Screening and Probabilistic Approaches in Endangered Species Risk Assessments

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The confluence of the protection goals of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA) presents many challenges for environmental risk assessment for pesticide registrations. A deterministic approach has traditionally been used for FIFRA national scale assessments, where point estimates of exposure and effects are used to produce risk quotients which are compared against arbitrary levels of concern (LOQ). This approach allows for relative toxicity, exposure and risk comparisons across chemicals, and may include both screening level and refined approaches allowing the assessor to focus on taxonomic groups of concern. Under ESA, the assessment methods employed are undergoing rapid development with a focus on the protection of individual organisms and populations. These developments have been influenced largely by the National Research Council (NRC) committee recommendations (2013) which were incorporated into an interim approach outlined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Marine Fisheries Service, and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The NRC recommendations included a preference for probabilistic over deterministic approaches for risk assessment for endangered species to enable the evaluation of likelihood and magnitude of risk across species. However, given the practical challenge of national-scale assessments and high numbers of species to consider, effective screening techniques are still needed to direct risk assessment and risk management resources to the species at greatest potential risk relative to a stressor of interest. We explore various applications of screening and probabilistic approaches throughout the risk assessment process to effectively target taxonomic groups and species of potential concern and evaluate and characterize risk. These methods employ data evaluation and filtering techniques (including proximity analysis), weight of evidence approaches for qualitative and quantitative data and methods for including uncertainty in the assessment. The objective is to advance the risk assessment process for listed threatened and endangered species by providing a more comprehensive and practical perspective on species risk compared to traditional approaches.

Matthew E. Kern, Katherine E. Kapo,  Joshua Amos, Megan Sebasky, Christopher M. Holmes, Gregg A. Hancock, Nathan Snyder. Advancing Effective Screening and Probabilistic Approaches in Endangered Species Risk Assessments. SETAC North America 35th Annual Meeting, Vancover, B.C. November 14, 2014.

PostersAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2014

Identification of the Sensitivity of Estimated Aquatic Exposure Concentrations from PRZM and AGRO-2014 Modeling to Variation in Chemical, Field Application, and Receiving Water Body Input Parameters for Synthetic Pyrethroid Agricultural Use Patterns

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This analysis focused on individual parameters to identify variables having the greatest impact on predicted pyrethroid runoff and erosion mass loadings from the PRZM model as well as those expected to impact receiving water body concentrations predicted by the AGRO-2014 modeling system. The results show the sensitivity of a “base case” due to variation in individual parameters. A hypothetical pyrethroid (Hypothrin) was developed which was representative of the physicochemical characteristics, environmental fate profile, and crop use patterns of all foliar applied pyrethroids. The USEPA cotton (MS) and lettuce (CA) standard PRZM scenarios were used as the base case for simulating Hypothrin aquatic exposures in the standard pond. These two scenarios were chosen because they represent wetter (high erosion) and drier (lower erosion) conditions. This study showed that the PRZM and AGRO-2014 models were highly sensitive to numerous individual parameters related to the amount of chemical applied, to chemical field degradation, factors that greatly influence edge-of-field runoff/erosion flows, and to those related to pond geometry and water-sediment partitioning.

Dean Desmarteau, Amy Ritter, Paul Hendley. (1) Waterborne Environmental, Inc., Leesburg, VA 20175, United States, (2) Phasera Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2JJ, United Kingdom. ACS/IUPAC 2014.

PostersAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2014

Refining Pyrethroid Aquatic Exposure Assessments by Incorporating Measured Landscape and Environmental Variability using Probabilistic Approaches. I – Overview – Concepts for Refining Lower Tier Exposure Estimates

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Regulatory aquatic exposure modeling at lower tiers typically uses standard scenarios based on assumptions designed to ensure model output is extremely conservative. To improve the accuracy of lower tier exposure assessments, these assumptions need to be examined to prioritize opportunities for refinement. Selected refinements should be quantifiable as numerical distributions of real-world variability which can be incorporated into exposure assessment frameworks via probabilistic modeling. National and regional distributions of landscape-related runoff and drift load transport from treated areas into receiving waters are an important and quantifiable source of variability in lower tier aquatic assessments. Additionally, for uses incorporating multiple aerial applications each season, the real-world co-occurrence of wind speed/direction across sequential seasonal applications has significant and quantifiable variability. The combined effect of these two real-world distributions on probabilistic distributions of potential aquatic pyrethroid exposure is a very significant reduction relative to lower tier predictions. However, other unchanged scenario assumptions ensure the predictions remain conservative.

Paul Hendley, Amy M. Ritter, Chris M. Holmes, Dean A. Desmarteau. (1) Phasera Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2JJ, United Kingdom, (2) Waterborne Environmental Inc., Leesburg, VA 20175, United States

PostersAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2014

Refining Pyrethroid Aquatic Exposure Assessments by Incorporating Measured Landscape and Environmental Variability using Probabilistic Approaches. IV – Comparison of Aquatic Exposure Estimates for Pyrethroid Crops based on Real-world Inputs and Standard Lower Tier Regulatory Estimated Concentrations.

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The Pyrethroid Working Group (PWG) has conducted a probabilistic refinement of aquatic exposure estimates for agricultural uses. PWG has characterized potential vulnerabilities of the US nationwide landscape for key pyrethroid use patterns in terms of the potential for drift and runoff entry at the NHD+ catchment spatial scale in areas where the crop is currently produced, the likelihood of multiple applications all having adverse wind speeds and directions and also the potential impact of many other factors associated with well documented pyrethroid behaviors. The first two factors have been defined as numerical probability distributions which can be translated into input assumptions for EPA standard farm pond scenario modeling using PRZM-AGRO-2014 for comparison with output from EPA’s standard lower tier model scenarios. The results show that the probabilistic assessments generate exposure distributions that are dominated by results from catchments with zero to low cropping densities. This, coupled with the fact that most crops are not grown extensively on extremely erosive slopes/soils, means that standard lower tier regulatory exposure estimates only reflect the upper bounds of real-world potential exposures. Additional factors related to pyrethroid behaviors mean that even these probabilistic pyrethroid model outputs over-predict likely real-world concentrations. These results are supported by monitoring data.

Paul Hendley, Chris M. Holmes, Amy M. Ritter, Dean A. Desmarteau. Phasera Ltd., Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2JJ, United Kingdom, Waterborne Environmental Inc., Leesburg, VA 20175, United States

Papers & ReportsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2014

Ecological Risk Assessment for Chlorpyrifos in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in the United States

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W. Martin Williams is the co-author of three chapters in: Giesy, John and Solomon, K. (Eds.) 2014, 269 p. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-03865-0.