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PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

Overview of the chemical degradation kinetics pathway tool and practical considerations for its application for model inputs

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ACS 2021, AGRO Division, Zoom Room 04
Session Title: Overview of the chemical degradation kinetics pathway tool and practical considerations for its application for model inputs
Monday, August 23, 2021, 10:35 am – 11:00 am USA/Canada – Eastern

Reliable chemical degradation tools for modeling kinetic pathways are imperative to conducting accurate human health and environmental risk assessments. While the EU FOCUS organization has extensive guidance for conducting the analysis and software tools have been developed in many iterations (CAKE, KinGUII, Model Maker, etc), the USEPA has not formally released tools or guidance for pathway modeling. In 2020, the USEPA included a kinetics software tool, Deg Kinetics v 2.8.2, for kinetic evaluation of chemical degradation data for applications in drinking water assessments with several evaluations. This Excel based solver serves as a useful tool for modeling single first order chemical pathways and evaluation of degradation within the pathway as an input into the typical exposure models used by USEPA, PMRA, and state agencies. This presentation will utilize the Deg Kinetics v 2.8.2 tool in the context of real-world application of the tool as a comparison of its setup, inputs, and parameter selection to that of other FOCUS typical kinetics tools. Finally, this presentation will provide an overview of methods for combining data from multiple datasets as inputs into the model framework – specifically regarding considerations with rapidly degrading parent to daughter and granddaughter compounds and the impact on model predictions.

P. Paulausky (Waterborne), A. Ritter (Waterborne), N. Snyder (Waterborne). Overview of the chemical degradation kinetics pathway tool and practical considerations for its application for model inputs. AGRO, ACS 2021, Virtual Meeting

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

Collection of water monitoring data: Working in the spirit of GLPs

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ACS 2021, AGRO Division, Zoom Room 04
Session Title: Collection of water monitoring data: Working in the spirit of GLPs
Monday, August 23, 2021, 07:25 pm – 07:45 pm USA/Canada – Eastern

Over time the accessibility and processes used for the collection of water monitoring data has changed. The days of transcription from laboratory reports are becoming minimal and electronic data files from comprehensive databases are becoming more commonplace, which requires new approaches for data reproducibility and documentation. Over the past decade, water monitoring data have been collected under the “spirit of the GLPs” in its documentation, reproducibility, and archival. While all aspects of the GLP program are not required, critical steps throughout the data collection and processing follow the underlying principles of the GLPs. As more electronic data were collected from a variety of sources, the process of how to standardize these data increased in complexity. Challenges such as data transformation, traceability, and connections to historic data needed to be addressed to ensure data quality and to answer questions from regulators. In addition, we have continued to enhance our data processing protocols to ensure consistency in data handling, analysis, and documentation of uncertainty. For studies in which GLPs are not necessarily required by a sponsor, we explore an approach of operating under the “spirit of the GLPs” to ensure that monitoring data processes and summarization are repeatable, traceable and provide confidence around electronic data processing and archival similar to those electronic data collected under GLP programs.

J. Trask (Waterborne), L. Johnson (Waterborne), J. Crider (Waterborne)

Collection of water monitoring data: Working in the spirit of GLPs. AGRO, ACS 2021, Virtual Meeting

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable agricultural areas in the Ukraine

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ACS 2021, AGRO Division, Zoom Room 02
Session Title: Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable agricultural areas in the Ukraine
Monday, August 23, 2021, 05:50 pm – 06:15 pm USA/Canada – Eastern

GIS overlay methods such as vulnerability index methods are frequently used to assess the relative vulnerability of groundwater or surface water to contaminants. The application of these methods is driven in large part by data availability, and assessor expertise and familiarity. This may result in a bias in the models as certain criteria are over- or underemphasized; for example, pesticide behavior is often ignored in commonly used index methods, where environmental factors such as pH and organic carbon have been shown to affect the local vulnerability of groundwater and surface water. Furthermore, vulnerability index methods may feature subjective weights and rankings, which increases the likelihood of bias. Two new index methods using a standardized approach are introduced and applied to determine groundwater and surface water vulnerability for corn production areas in the Ukraine. For groundwater, the following parameters were included: average annual rainfall, topsoil sand content, topsoil organic carbon content, topsoil pH, drainage class and depth to groundwater. For surface water, key variables included slope, days with more than 25.4 mm of rainfall, topsoil available water capacity, topsoil organic carbon content, topsoil pH and drainage class. A weighting schema was developed for each of the variables. Weights ranged from 1 to 6, with 1 being the lowest weight and 6 being the highest weight and were based on six percentile classes. This has the advantage that the distribution of variables is accounted for and are unbiased, and that the method can be easily applied to other regions to provide a systematic and transparent assessment approach. Using this approach, the maximum vulnerability score is 36 and the results show the relative vulnerability for both groundwater and surface water. For groundwater, 12.7% of the total agricultural areas fall in the upper percentile class (>83.3%) of vulnerability and have scores 26 – 33. For surface water 13.2% of the total agricultural areas falling into the upper percentile class and have scores 26 – 35. The maximum attainable vulnerable score of 36 was not achieved in either assessment.

 

C. Hoogeweg (Waterborne), N. Peranginangin (Syngenta), R. Krueger (Waterborne), A. Ritter (Waterborne)

Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable surface water areas in the Ukraine. AGRO, ACS 2021, Virtual Meeting

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable surface water areas in Brazil

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ACS 2021, AGRO Division, Zoom Room 02
Session Title: Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable surface water areas in Brazil
Monday, August 23, 2021 05:25 pm – 05:50 pm USA/Canada – Eastern

Brazil’s diverse agricultural landscape poses challenges to assess the impact of agricultural chemicals due to the differences in climate, unique soils, and agricultural management practices across the country. The aim of this project was to determine areas in Brazil that are currently under soybean production and potentially vulnerable to surface water runoff. Potential vulnerable areas were determined by conducting a GIS overlay of soils, climate, and topography data within likely soybean production areas. Potential vulnerable areas were defined as areas having soils with high levels of clay and rainfall with steep slopes, soils low in water holding capacity, and/or poor drainage. The results from this assessment can be used to select potential vulnerable areas for detailed exposure modeling using regulatory accepted environmental fate models. The municipalities with the highest soybean production are located in Mato Grosso (Central Brazil), Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande Do Sul in southern Brazil. The lowest runoff index was calculated to be 11 and the highest 35. Areas with lower runoff potential are found throughout Brazil and are more prevalent than high runoff potential areas. When the runoff index dataset is filtered to the soybean production areas, regions in Santa Catarina, Paraná and Goiás all have areas with a high (>27) runoff index. This indicates that compared to other soybean producing regions, these areas are more likely to be vulnerable to runoff. Only 9.24% of the soybean regions fall in the highest runoff vulnerability class, having an index of 27 or greater. The majority, 70.66%, of the areas fall within the median range of vulnerability (index 16 – 26). The frequency distribution chart of runoff vulnerability indices shows a bi-modal distribution. The theoretical highest vulnerability value of 42 was never reached in this assessment.

C. Hoogeweg (Waterborne), M. Urban (Syngenta), J. Schulze-Aurich (Syngenta), W. Phelps (Syngenta), A. Cione (Syngenta), A. Ritter (Waterborne). Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable surface water areas in Brazil. AGRO, ACS 2021. Virtual Meeting

PostersAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

A Novel Approach for Estimating Flow During Submerged Tile Conditions

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ASABE 2021 Annual Meeting, July 2021

Session:  Natural Resource and Environmental Systems (#23 Drainage Group)

Abstract: Accurate tile flow rate and flow volume estimates are critical to estimating subsurface nutrient runoff. Efforts have been made to improve the accuracy and ease of flow estimates during free flow conditions using water level control structures paired with weirs and water level instrumentation. However, in fields experiencing submerged tile conditions, few options exist for estimating tile flow beyond installing velocity-based flow instrumentation, which is often cost-prohibitive. This work proposes a method for estimating flow rate and volume during submerged tile conditions by taking into account flow proportion of monitored and unmonitored tile laterals based on field flow lines, assessing the proportion of tile main runoff attributed to each lateral using historical free-flowing event data, and applying the new lateral flow proportions in conjunction with weir equations to produce a modified flow calculation. This method is applied to a sample field research site with 45 total tile laterals (18 monitored, 27 unmonitored) using water level data for flow events between 2017-2020.

Authors:  Patricia Paulausky, Farah Abi-Akar, Russell Krueger (Waterborne Environmental), Laura Gentry (Illinois Corn Growers Association), Gregory Goodwin (Waterborne Environmental).  ASABE 2021 Annual International Meeting.

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2020

Impact of climate change on the relevance of TFD studies and OECD crosswalks

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ACS 2020, AGRO 235
Session Title: Sustainability in Agriculture: Understanding the Environmental Footprint of Developing Crop Protection Products
Monday, August 17, 2020 8:00AM

Abstract:

Climate change studies confirm that the earth is warming up and that shifts in rainfall patterns is occurring. Various computer models predict that Earth’s average temperature will rise between 1.8° and 4.0° Celsius (3.2° and 7.2° F). Consequently, these warmer temperatures will cause a higher rate of evaporation, resulting in a predicted increase of average global rainfall by 3-5%. This climate change, therefore, will impact the relevance of historical and current terrestrial field dissipation (TFD) studies. Under OCED guidance, TFD studies conducted in one country can be applicable to other countries if the characteristics of overlapping ecoregions are the same. These assessments are conducted using the OECD ENASGIPS tool. If these characteristics change, so will the similarity assessment and therefore the potential relevance of TFD sites. With increase rainfall, TFD sites in the Southeastern US, which typically have few similar areas, may become more relevant because other areas are receiving more rainfall. Likewise, TFD sites in Canada, characterized by cold winters, may become more applicable to larger areas in Europe with increasing temperature. In this presentation we will review some of the climate change scenarios, place existing TFD sites in context of new climates and determine the impact on OECD crosswalks.

C. Hoogeweg, A. Ritter (Waterborne). Impact of climate change on the relevance of TFD studies and OECD crosswalks. AGRO 235, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2020

Novel approaches for assessing management of tile-drain agricultural chemical transport

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ACS 2020, AGRO 214
Session Title: Off-target Transport of Field Applied Agricultural Chemicals
Monday, August 17, 2020 8:00AM

Abstract:

The study of conservation best management practices and their effectiveness at mitigating the off-site transport of agricultural chemicals is an established research field. While runoff and erosion have received much study focus, there is a growing need for new and novel approaches to monitor nutrients in tile-drained systems. A sophisticated water monitoring system was developed that utilizes technology to create an automated pass-through sampling site, employing state of the art nutrient sensor technology to monitor nitrate concentrations in thirty-seven discrete subsurface agricultural drainage tile laterals at a sampling rate of between two and four hours per sample at each tile. This design has proven highly efficient and provides a data resolution that would be impractical to consider under conventional sampling methods. It also allows for the replicated study of several treatments (different mitigation practice approaches) and control plots, with little additional cost per added plot. Additional benefits include the ability to view data in real-time, allowing researchers to observe real-time rainfall event-based plot responses without the analytical results delay from a laboratory. The developed site data provides the needed resolution for tile drain model validation or developments.

G. Goodwin (Waterborne), L. Gentry (Illinois Corn Growers Association), P. Paulausky, J. Trask, A. Jacobson, A. Ritter (Waterborne). Novel approaches for assessing management of tile-drain agricultural chemical transport. AGRO 214, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

Papers & ReportsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2018

Honey bee colony-level exposure and effects in realistic landscapes: An application of BEEHAVE simulating clothianidin residues in corn pollen

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Discerning potential effects of insecticides on honey bee colonies in field studies conducted under realistic conditions can be challenging because of concurrent interactions with other environmental conditions. Honey bee colony models can control exposures and other environmental factors, as well as assess links among pollen and nectar residues in the landscape, their influx into the colony, and the resulting exposures and effects on bees at different developmental stages. We extended the colony model BEEHAVE to represent exposure to the insecticide clothianidin via residues in pollen from treated cornfields set in real agricultural landscapes in the US Midwest. We assessed their potential risks to honey bee colonies over a 1-yr cycle. Clothianidin effects on colony strength were only observed if unrealistically high residue levels in the pollen were simulated. The landscape composition significantly impacted the collection of pollen (residue exposure) from the cornfields, resulting in higher colony-level effects in landscapes with lower proportions of semi-natural land. The application of the extended BEEHAVE model with a pollen exposure-effects module provides a case study for the application of a mechanistic honey bee colony model in pesticide risk assessment integrating the impact of a range of landscape compositions.

Schmolke, A., Abi-Akar, F., Hinarejos, S. (2018), Honey bee colony-level exposure and effects in realistic landscapes: An application of BEEHAVE simulating clothianidin residues in corn pollen. Environ Toxicol Chem. DOI: 10.1002/etc.4314

PresentationsAgriculture and Food2017

Prospective Methods for Characterizing Likelihood of Pollinator Protection Resulting from Programmatic Conservation Initiatives

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SETAC Session Title:  Assessing the Role of Contaminants in the Decline of Prairie Complex Pollinators
Presentation Date: Tuesday November 14, 2017
Presentation Time: 10:40 AM
Location: Session Room 101AJ

Abstract:
Over 4,000 species of native bees are responsible for crop pollination activity in the United States, the majority in solitary nests. County-, State-, and Federal-scale initiatives and programs have been put in motion toward programmatic protection of pollinators. Programmatic initiatives tend to focus on habitat creation, preservation, or restoration and should be accounted for in conservation efforts to protect pollinator species. These habitat initiatives may be a simple means to rapidly respond to pressures to implement protection measures, but may be less impactful or less appropriate for certain species of pollinators than others. A methodology for evaluating programmatic conservation initiatives and associated impact on pollinator protection is warranted and would require more specific identification of species that are the recipients of protection. The specific characteristics and requirements of the identified species should be addressed. Difficult and important discussions about cost-benefit and likelihood of protection success may be more fruitful if a common methodology is followed. We present preliminary methods that benchmark characteristics of land use change/management and pollinator life history features through programmatic conservation initiatives that yield the most benefit for pollinator protection. Land use change, prompted by potential conservation efforts, is systematically compared to focal species’ requirements according to their life history traits and habitat requirements. As an example, we use the Rusty Patched Bumble Bee (Bombus affinis), a species recent listed as endangered, as a test case for benchmarking potential protection through the introduction of different conservation initiatives, such as creation of conservation reserve program land, pollinator corridor creation, cover crops, and integrated pest management.

Daniel Perkins (Waterborne Environmental), Amelie Schmolke (Waterborne Environmental), Farah Abi-Akar (Waterborne Environmental), Andrew Jacobson (Waterborne Environmental). Prospective Methods for Characterizing Likelihood of Pollinator Protection Resulting from Programmatic Conservation Initiatives. Platform SETAC 2017. Minneapolis, MN.

PostersAgriculture and Food2016

Modeling Watershed-Scale Cover Crop Impact on Nitrate Availability and Transport

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Presented at the 2016 Hypoxia Task Force Meeting in St. Louis, MO.

Daniel Perkins, PhD., Rohith Gali, PhD. (Waterborne) and Caroline Wade (Illinois Corn Growers Association).”Modeling Watershed-Scale Cover Crop Impact on Nitrate Availability and Transport“.Poster. Hypoxia Task Force Spring 2016.