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Publications: Crop Protection

PostersCrop Protection2022

Development of a surface- and groundwater modelling risk assessment tool for predicting exposure from pesticides used in major crops in Norway

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The risk assessment tool WISPE (The World Integrated System for Pesticide Exposure) was developed which includes the environmental fate and transport models winPRZM and EXAMS. WISPE is a computer modelling tool developed to evaluate the potential impact of crop protection products on the environment in Norway. WISPE makes it possible to estimate pesticide exposure in surface- and groundwater resources considering Norwegian conditions for 11 different crops. Originally developed in 2013, WISPE was updated in 2021 to be more flexible with adding scenarios, outputs, weather files and to utilize the most recent enhancements to winPRZM. This version of WISPE also includes two northern FOCUS groundwater scenarios. This poster presents the new user input interface and shows examples of the results.

SETAC Europe 2022. Session 3.08 – Measuring, monitoring and modelling of pesticide fate and mitigation in a regulatory context. Presentation 3.08.P-Th061. Poster Session. Thursday 19 May 2022. Exhibition Hall.

A. Ritter, M. Cheplick (Waterborne), R. Bolli, R. Holten (Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research NIBIO). Development of a surface- and groundwater modelling risk assessment tool for predicting exposure from pesticides used in major crops in Norway

PostersCrop Protection, Home and Personal Care Products2022

Eco-Epidemiology to Assess Potential Risks of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors, Including UV Filters, to Corals in Hawaii

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Recently questions have been raised regarding the environmental safety of some UV filters used in personal, skin care and beach products to corals.  In some cases (Hawaii, Key West, Palau) regulatory actions have been precautionary, leading to bans.  Eco-epidemiology is a methodology that considers impairments to environmental species and communities from complex combinations of multiple physical and chemical factors with the intent of developing weights of evidence for potential causal relationships.  In this study a large set of natural and human influenced factors (including potential risks of measured UV filters and beach visitors) along with coral cover data were assembled to assess the potential adverse effects of UV filters on corals surrounding Oahu, Hawaii within the context of other factors.  Principal component analyses simplified the coral data into two components:  PC1 representing species diversity and PC2 representing abundance.  These components along with all other factors were correlated against each other to determine if some factors could act as proxies for other factors via multiple linear regression and boosted regression tree analyses.  Overall, there were good agreements between the two regression methods.  The boosted regression tree for PC1 (diversity) showed that 90 percent of the variance were addressed by 3 factors:  wave power, temperature (long-term mean) and benthic turf algae.  The remaining 10 percent included 13 other factors including beach visitors and UV filters.  The regression tree for PC2 (abundance) illustrated 3 factors (temperature long-term mean, latitude, and temperature long-term standard deviation) addressed 75% of the variance.  Twelve other factors, including beach visitors and UV filters) were associated with the remaining 25 percent.  Hence, it appears that UV filter hazards do not significantly address reduced coral diversity and abundance, suggesting that precautionary bans may not achieve their intended results.

SETAC Europe 2022. On-Demand Only Session 4.07: Environmental Risk Assessment of Organic and Inorganic UV Filters. Poster.

S. Dyer (Waterborne and LeTourneau Unviersity), R. Vamshi (Waterborne), C. Holmes (Applied Analysis Solutions), N. Green (Waterborne and Kennesaw Sate University), B. Kent (Waterborne), I. Davies (Personal Care Products Council). Eco-Epidemiology to Assess Potential Risks of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors, Including UV Filters, to Corals in Hawaii

PostersCrop Protection2022

Solitary bees in agricultural landscapes: SolBeePop, a population modeling approach

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With their large diversity of species, solitary bees are important pollinators of crops and native plant communities. In agricultural landscapes, they can potentially be exposed to pesticides, and thus, are considered explicitly in risk assessments of pesticides. The managed Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is currently used as surrogate across bee species in these assessments. Fundamental ecological differences result from the social and solitary life styles, introducing uncertainty in the estimation of pesticide risk to solitary bee populations. We developed the model SolBeePop, a population model for solitary bees in agricultural landscapes. The model can simulate a variety of species by using species-specific traits as model parameterizations. Model parameterizations for the modeled species (Osmia bicornis, O. cornifrons, O. cornuta, O. lignaria, Megachile rotundata, Nomia melanderi, and Eucera (Peponapis) pruinosa) were compiled from the literature whereby data availability varied by species. The model can simulate the diverse life cycles of the species and can be used to explore the importance of uncertainties in data to the population dynamics. We calibrated and validated the model with control data from semi-field studies conducted with O. bicornis and O. cornuta. The model can successfully capture population dynamics observed in these studies. Further developments include the implementation of an exposure and effect module which will make it possible to simulate exposure and population-level effects in the context of realistic landscape scenarios. Thus, this model will become a valuable tool for higher-tier pesticide risk assessments of solitary bees in agricultural landscapes.

SETAC Europe 2022. Session 4.05 – Effect Modelling in ERA. Poster Session. Wednesday 18 May 2022. Exhibition Hall.

A. Schmolke (Waterborne), N. Galick (Syngenta Crop Protection), S. Hinarejos (Sumitomo Chemical). Solitary bees in agricultural landscapes: SolBeePop, a population modeling approach

PostersCrop Protection2022

Harmonised Framework for Spatially Distributed Leaching Modelling of Pesticides Initiative: A 2022 Update

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Spatially distributed leaching modelling (SDLM) of pesticides is a methodology to estimate leaching potential over a large spatial extent such as national or European level. SDLM can help setting groundwater monitoring programs in context. It is described in the FOCUS groundwater report and foreseen to be used as higher tier leaching risk assessment as well as supporting monitoring studies. SDLM is already used as a higher tier assessment in the national authorization procedure in some EU countries and will probably become more important in future.

At the SETAC Europe 2020 online meeting, the initiative was officially formalised as a SETAC working group, consisting of a triad of members from regulatory agencies, academia, and industries. A steering committee manages the effort to develop harmonized guidelines for spatial distributed leaching modelling across Europe and published a problem definition document describing the aim and scope of the work. In 2021 subgroups for Geodata and Modelling were established with each a specific focus.

The Geodata subgroup is evaluating datasets that can be used to generate a spatial modelling scheme and associated scenarios. Data reviewed fall in several established INSPIRE metadata categories such as Agricultural, Meteorological, Land Cover, Hydrography, Soil, and many other categories. All data are evaluated for spatial coverage, resolution, temporal aspects, period covered, version control, accuracy, and frequency of updates. Data availability is assessed as well to ensure that all SDLM stakeholders can use the same datasets when developing their SDLM framework. The Geodata group primarily focusses on pan-European datasets that cover the EU27 and the UK.

The Modelling subgroup is evaluating the models to be used in the SDLM context. Specific attention is paid to lateral flow processes such as runoff and drainage and the impact on substance transport to groundwater. As worst-case assumption these processes are not considered in lower tier leaching calculations. However, in a spatial context, ignorance of lateral flow may lead to unrealistic leaching patterns, so options were evaluated how to include runoff in a harmonised way into the models (e.g., using the runoff curve number approach as used in FOCUSsw). As the SDLM teams continue to work, this presentation provides an update to interested parties.

SETAC Europe 2022. Session 3.08 – Measuring, monitoring and modelling of pesticide fate and mitigation in a regulatory context. Presentation 3.08.P-Th065. Poster Session, Thursday 19 May 2022.

G. Hoogeweg (Waterborne), A. Poot (CTGB, Ede), A. Tiktak (PBL), B. Jene (BASF SE), F. van den Berg (Wageningen University & Research), A. Ghafoor (KEMI) M. Klein (Fraunhofer IME), M. Stemmer (AGES), P. Sweeney (Syngenta UK Limited), R. Sur, J. Agert (Bayer AG), M. Vanclooster (Université catholique de Louvain), G. Heuvelink (ISRIC – World Soil Information), G. Hughes (Cambridge Environmental Assessments), S. Marahrens (Umweltbundesamt), S. Reichenberger (knoell France SAS), N. Suciu (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore). Harmonised Framework for Spatially Distributed Leaching Modelling of Pesticides Initiative: A 2022 Update.

 

PostersCrop Protection2022

Application of Standard Fate and Transport Modeling Approaches for Evaluating PFAS Compounds in Groundwater

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Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) used in numerous consumer products and industrial applications make their way into the environment through multiple pathways. Vastness of the chemical group, with thousands of distinct PFAS and their widespread uses have led to their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. These contaminants are receiving increased attention due to their persistence and toxicity to environmental and human health. Several small and large-scale monitoring programs have shown widespread presence of these compounds in air, surface and ground water, and soil media. USEPA has been prioritizing ongoing work to better understand and eventually reduce the potential exposure and risks caused by these chemicals. Reliable modeling tools to evaluate the fate and transport of these chemicals are critical to the development of risk assessment and remediation strategies. To date, limited work has been done to better understand the fate and transport of these complex chemicals in the environment using existing modeling approaches. Rising public interest and increasing regulatory action has made the need for modeling an important next step in advancing the understanding of these persistent chemicals. This work will focus on applying standard modeling approaches to understand the fate and transport of PFAS. Two models, HYDRUS and PEARL, were used to simulate PFAS measured under standardized conditions. As a case study, these models were then applied to simulate a PFAS chemical to two study areas in the United States.  Results from modeling were compared with available groundwater monitoring data for the study areas. The practical utility of the standard modeling approaches for application to address the PFAS challenges over small and large geographies are discussed.

SETAC Europe 2022. Session 3.16: Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs): Addressing Urgent Questions in the 21st Century

R. Vamshi, B. Kent, A. Ritter, G. Hoogeweg (Waterborne). Application of Standard Fate and Transport Modeling Approaches for Evaluating PFAS Compounds in Groundwater. On-Demand.

PresentationsCrop Protection2022

Comparative Ecosystem Modeling Study for Assessing Pesticide Risks in Aquatic Mesocosms

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Outdoor aquatic mesocosms are artificial ecosystems used for higher-tier pesticide risk assessments to assess the effects of pesticides across a wide range of organisms and to capture indirect effects mediated by the food web. Mesocosms provide more realistic estimates of risks compared to single-species laboratory-based standard toxicity studies. Aquatic system models (ASMs) have been developed to simulate mesocosm systems and can extend pesticide risk assessment through applying scenarios corresponding to conditions untested in the empirical systems, including time-variable exposures. We are presenting a comparative modeling (“ring”) study with four previously published ASMs (Streambugs, AQUATOX, CASM, and StoLaM+StreamCom). With the ring study, we aim to assess whether the artificial mesocosm systems can be simulated with ASMs. In addition, the study is an opportunity to gain insight into and inform data collection from the mesocosms themselves and allow for comparison between available ASMs. The goal of the study is to calibrate and validate the models with the same set of available mesocosm data. Mesocosm data are available from untreated control mesocosms from seven studies conducted in four different years at the FNU Research Centre Neu-Ulrichstein, Germany. We reviewed these data for patterns and consistencies across studies, and derived calibration and validation criteria to compare with the model outputs. Four of the available control data sets were used for calibration by all models. The remaining three data sets were used for validation in a separate step. The ring study provides a unique opportunity to compare previously published ASMs and assess whether they can be used to simulate the transient ecosystem responses in mesocosms. The ring study attempts to develop and establish ASMs as virtual mesocosms acceptable in the regulatory context of pesticide risk assessment.

SETAC Europe 2022. Session 4.05 – Effect Modelling in ERA. Oral Presentation, Wednesday 18 May 2022 AM Session (10:40AM).

A. Schmolke, F. Abi-Akar, J. Collins (Waterborne), N. Galic, R. Ashauer (Syngenta Crop Protection), S. Bartell, Y. Atalay (Cardno, Inc.), I. O’Connor, S. Spycher (EBP Schweiz AG), N. Schuwirth (Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology), T. Strauss (gaiac Research Institute), B. Sackmann (GSI Environmental Inc), D. Preziosi, R. Pastorok (Integral Consulting, Inc), P. Ebke, J. Schmidt, A. Loerracher (Mesocosm GmbH, Institut für Gewässerschutz).

PostersCrop Protection2022

Estimating the range shift of beetle occurrence using species distribution modeling – An application in the climate-change perspective

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With a changing climate, many species, including agricultural pests, are likely to shift their geographical ranges. This has important implications for pest management and crop yields. How could this shift look like for major pests? To get an idea for a specific example, we analyze the occurrence data of the spotted cucumber beetle (SCB), a significant pest to cucurbit crops in the US. The purpose is to (i) explore the presence of suitable habitat in the USA and (ii) project the habitat suitability to the future, considering different climate change scenarios. The work is performed using a flexible and open platform for modeling species niches and distributions.

To build a species distribution model, data on species occurrence (locations where the species was observed) and environmental conditions relevant to the species across the US have to be retrieved and processed. For our analysis, we used the dataset of the SCB occurrences from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the environmental data from WorldClim. After processing these datasets, we performed a partition of occurrence data to test the accuracy of the predictive model. Subsequently, we ran the species distribution model which is based on a machine-learning algorithm that estimates the species response to the environment. Model outputs show the relative abundance or probability of occurrence over space (the USA) and time (projections to 2070). We tested two different scenarios of climate change using the intermediate RCP4.5 scenario and the worst-case RCP 8.5 scenario. Results suggest that there will be areas of estimated range loss of SCB (Southeast US, Southern Texas) and areas of estimated range expansion (Northeast, Northern parts of the Midwest, Eastern regions of CA, and the Pacific North West) in both climate scenarios, suggesting that the species could become a major pest in regions where it is currently absent or occurring at low abundances.

SETAC Europe 2022. Session 2.02 – Arthropods at Risk. Poster in On-Demand Only Session.

G. Hoogeweg, B. Kent, C. Accolla, J. Jackson, A. Schmolke, A. Ritter (Waterborne). Estimating the range shift of beetle occurrence using species distribution modeling – An application in the climate-change perspective

PostersCrop Protection2021

Emergent Adverse Outcome Pathways and Their Potential to Contribute Novel Toxicological Knowledge

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Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are used to encode structured toxicological knowledge. User-contributed online knowledgebases, such as the AOPWiki, contain AOPs that span diverse biological and toxicological domains. When AOPs are shared publicly, contributors are doing more than just disseminating knowledge of their specialties, they are also creating the potential for new knowledge through emergent AOPs across domains. Emergent AOPs result when key events are shared across userdefined AOPs. Recent research shows that emergent AOPs far outnumber user-defined AOPs in the AOPWiki. However, given the diversity of AOPs, emergent AOPs may provide novel toxicological insight, or they may be computational artifacts. Therefore, methods must be developed to assess their biological plausibility and prioritize them for further expert review. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of semantic network analysis of the user-defined and emergent AOPs for this purpose. Results show that unspecified emergent AOPs have, on average, comparable if not higher levels of semantic coherence as user-defined AOPs. These results indicate that emergent AOPs represent a large amount of valuable untapped AOP knowledge and reiterate the value of further enhancing user-contributed public knowledgebases, such as the AOPWiki and broader AOP knowledgebase. The contents of this abstract neither constitute nor necessarily reflect USEPA policy.

SETAC North America 2021. Session: Late Breaking Science: Environmental Risk Assessment (05.20.05)

N. Polesch (Waterborne), J. Olker (US EPA), R. Wang (US EPA). Emergent Adverse Outcome Pathways and Their Potential to Contribute Novel Toxicological Knowledge.

PostersCrop Protection2021

Refining Spatial Analysis Using Best Available Species Attributes for Listed Terrestrial Plant Species

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The incorporation of best available species information in ecological risk assessments for listed species offers a significant opportunity to refine spatial analysis to reduce assessment uncertainty. The US Fish and Wildlife Service provides range and critical habitat spatial data for listed plant species which can be combined with USDA cropping and compound usage data to inform overlap and impact of usage on a risk assessment. The spatial-specific cropping and usage data are often collected and developed over time and are available at variable specificity for different species. The species biological data, 5-year review and recovery plan documents produced by the US Fish and Wildlife Services, National Marine Fisheries Service and other state or conservation organizations often provide detail on sensitive areas where management is most influential (e.g., critical spawning areas or species known locations). Most notably, species specific habitat requirements are very useful to inform identification of suitable habitat, potential utilization of various land cover types, and relationships to potential product use sites. This narrative information, combined with spatial data provided by the USGS, USDA, and state or local agencies (such as elevation, land cover, soils, and park/administrative boundaries) can aid in the identification of species suitable habitat at often quite detailed spatial resolution. Such spatial identification of a species suitable habitat and potential areas of product use can clarify the relationship between a stressor and the species being assessed and thus refine the risk characterization for the species. This presentation focuses on the application of these methods to visualize the spatial relationship between areas most suitable for a species and areas of potential product use for a representative insecticide.

 

SETAC North America 2021. Session: Advancing Endangered Species Risk Assessment and Mitigation from National Scale to Species-Centric Assessments Using “Best Available” Data (05.01.14)

N. Guth, N. Snyder (Waterborne), M. Kern (Balance EcoSolutions), J.M. Jackson (Waterborne, T.M. Blickley, P. Havens (Corteva Agriscience). Refining Spatial Analysis Using Best Available Species Attributes for Listed Terrestrial Plant Species.

PostersCrop Protection2021

The Application of Species Attributes in Listed Terrestrial Plants Refining Risk Assessments

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The incorporation of best available species information in ecological risk assessments for listed species offers a significant opportunity to advance risk characterization and reduce uncertainty in these assessments. The US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, and other state and conservation organizations often provide extensive species biological data that can then be used to support these efforts. For example, localized species protection and recovery goals from management plans typically provide detail on sensitive areas where management is most influential (e.g., critical spawning areas or species known locations). Many of these plans contain detailed information on the species (e.g., habitat, reproduction, and distribution) baseline status of the species, and its stressors (e.g., urban development, catastrophic weather events, and invasive species) that most likely influence the status and potential recovery of the species. Details on interspecies relationships (e.g., dietary choices and pollinators), help to understand relevant routes of exposure and can be used to inform how toxicity of the compound being evaluated is applied to the assessment. All this information clarifies the relationship between a stressor and the species being assessed. This presentation focuses on the application of these data to advance a refined ecological risk assessment for terrestrial plant species as part of a stepwise approach. Species attributes are applied to reduce assessment uncertainty and characterize potential risk to enable more effective species management strategies.

SETAC North America 2021. Session: Advancing Endangered Species Risk Assessment and Mitigation from National Scale to Species-Centric Assessments Using “Best Available” Data (05.01.13)

M. Kern (Balance EcoSolutions), J. Jackson, N. Snyder, N. Guth (Waterborne), T.M. Blickley, P. Havens (Corteva Agriscience). The Application of Species Attributes in Listed Terrestrial Plants Refining Risk Assessments.