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PresentationsHome and Personal Care Products, Water/Wastewater Assessments2019

Development of integrated risk assessment framework and methodology for assessing environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China

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SETAC 2019, Platform 30
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Building Bridges Between Lab-and Field-Derived Data: Methods for the Assessment of Complex Environmental Issues
Monday, November 4, 2019
10:40 am, Room 717B

Abstract:
The new Chinese regulatory chemical management scheme calls for increased development of risk-based assessment framework and tools that can address regional and national needs. Important considerations include identifying chemicals with high potential for adverse impact to humans and the environment early in the assessment, while also recognizing regional differences in the levels of economic and infrastructure development as well as environmental conditions. An integrated, tiered environmental risk assessment framework and methodology was developed for assessing the environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China. The tiers incorporate China’s specific exposure conditions as well as consideration of Chinese native species for effects assessment. The framework starts with a Low Tier utilizing the existing Chinese regulatory qualitative method, whereas Mid-Tier is quantitative using deterministic and probabilistic approaches that account for per capita residential water usage, wastewater treatment capability, as well as wastewater/in-stream dilution factors. A High Tier spatially explicit aquatic exposure model was recently created which leveraged historic work on the iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute). A high-resolution river flow dataset was established based on the Curve Number method (Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture) and further validated by monitoring data. Case studies will be presented for consumer product ingredients which indicate Lower Tiers are conservative with greater environmental realism associated with High Tier methodology. A key aspect for the integrated framework is environmental effects assessment based on Chinese native species, as chemical registrations in China routinely involve local fish testing. The Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) and Chinese Medaka (Oryzias sinensis) are examples of leading local species. This research developed an understanding of the ecology, physiology, and other biological information allowed for the extrapolation between these two species and other OECD standard test species (e.g., zebrafish). We investigated comparative fish acute toxicity using 3,4-Dichloroaniline and NaCl with studies planned on additional chemicals and species. Chinese native species data will be utilized not only for direct hazard assessment but also for the development of statistical extrapolation methods, such as interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models. ICE models use available toxicity data of surrogate species to predict untested species to expand the domains of ecotoxicological information for China’s integrated environmental risk assessments.

M. Fan (P&G), K. McDonough (P&G), S. Belanger (P&G), Z. Liu (Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences), R. Vamshi (Waterborne), S. Csiszar (P&G), J. Menzies (P&G), X. Wang (Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences), K. Kapo (Waterborne).  Development of integrated risk assessment framework and methodology for assessing environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China. Platform 30, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersHome and Personal Care Products, Water/Wastewater Assessments2019

Moving toward a spatially-resolved global surface water flow and aquatic exposure model for consumer-use down-the-drain ingredients: Japan case study

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SETAC 2019, MP123
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Challenges in Characterizing Exposures to Organic Chemicals: Multiple Sources, Multiple Pathways and Multiple Scales
Monday, November 4, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
Exposure assessment is a key factor in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of consumer products that are disposed down-the-drain and involves estimating concentrations of ingredients in receiving waters. There is an opportunity to develop a globally-harmonized spatially explicit aquatic exposure model for down-the-drain ingredients by leveraging the growing availability of computational methods and large spatial datasets. Current models often assume average conditions across a country/region in a deterministic calculation, while, in reality, there can be substantial spatial variation in input parameters (e.g., emissions, per capita water use, and waste water treatment) across a region. While spatial variability has been addressed by some models, they have focused on a single country/region; and there is a need for a user-friendly, global aquatic exposure model on a single platform with a consistent approach, using best available data. The iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute) is a spatially-explicit aquatic exposure model parameterized and evaluated primarily for the United States. The model has also been extended to China and evaluation has indicated excellent agreement between modeled and measured river flow data. There was also excellent agreement between case study modeled and monitored chemical concentrations. This platform was leveraged and extended to cover Japan and follows a framework that uses global datasets to estimate river flow on a catchment level, rout chemicals between catchments, and estimate catchment-specific concentrations. Each catchment is parameterized with a specific population, per capita water use, and waste water treatment plant (WWTP) information; and allows for spatial variation in emissions. For Japan, spatial locations of WWTPs were incorporated into the model and the resulting population served by WWTP treatment corresponds well with published reports of treatment levels. Direct discharge of grey water was included to represent current practice in some areas of Japan. Measured river flow data and case study chemicals with available monitoring data were used to evaluate the flow predictions and concentration distributions estimated by the model. Thus, this model framework provides a promising platform for expansion as a global aquatic exposure model for down-the-drain ingredients.

S. Csiszar (P&G), R. Vamshi (Waterborne), M. Fan (P&G), K. McDonough (P&G).  Moving toward a spatially-resolved global surface water flow and aquatic exposure model for consumer-use down-the-drain ingredients: Japan case study. Poster, SETAC 2019. MP123. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsHome and Personal Care Products2019

Using eco-epidemiology to assess the potential risks of UV filters to corals

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Abstract:
A recent study in Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (Downs et al 2016) indicating potential ecotoxicity issues for coral exposed to UV filters, such as benzophenone-3, has gained a global-level of visibility. This single study has provided laboratory evidence that calls into question the sufficiency of environmental risk assessments associated with benzophenone-3 via sunscreen use, particularly for swimmers and sunbathers. For sub-tropical and tropical climates, the potential occurrence for exposure of BP-3 may be year-around. Spatial coincidence of BP-3 exposure and marine ecosystems highly dependent on corals amplifies the potential issues highlighted in the Downs et al study. However, coral reefs have been shown to be adversely affected by numerous other chemical, biological and physical stressors, ranging from local to global scales. Hence, the protection of corals requires a multi-faceted approach that considers not only potential chemicals stressors, but physical stress – including temperature and changes in habitat quality. We advocate the use of eco-epidemiology to evaluate the relationships between environmental stressors and ecological status within a realistic ecological context. This approach supports the recognition that ecosystem status is driven by a multitude of physical, chemical and other environmental factors. Since the foundation of the evaluation relies on measured ecological status, recommendations from such an assessment have great potential for decision-making (including regulations) that will yield fruitful management actions. Our initial analysis utilizes data obtained from experts at the University of Hawaii (e.g., Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP) http://cramp.wcc.hawaii.edu/default.htm). Measured UV filter and surrogate exposure data were collected for the island of Oahu from Mitchelmore et al (2018). To date, published works by the CRAMP experts indicate that both natural and anthropogenic factors may influence coral cover and species richness. Importantly, no single factor has been found to serve as a proxy for coral cover. Hence, it is clear that coral cover and species richness is dependent upon many factors. Based on CRAMP data alone, there appears to be a lack of data supporting the hypothesis that UV filters provide an adverse influence on corals. Our study places into context UV filters amongst several physical and chemical factors that potentially affect coral community health.

Scott Dyer (Waterborne Environmental), Christopher Holmes (Waterborne Environmental), Iain Davies (Personal Care Products Council), and Carys Mitchelmore (UMCES Chesapeake Biological Laboratory). Using eco-epidemiology to assess the potential risks of UV filters to corals.
Platform Presentation SETAC Europe 2019. Helsinki, Finland.

Papers & ReportsHome and Personal Care Products, Water/Wastewater Assessments2017

Use of Prospective and retrospective risk assessment methods that simplify chemical mixtures associated with treated domestic wastewater discharges

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A framework is presented that is intended to facilitate the evaluation of potential aquatic ecological risks resulting from discharges of down‐the‐drain chemicals. A scenario is presented using representatives of many of the types of chemicals that are treated domestically. Predicted environmental chemical concentrations are based on reported loading rates and routine removal rates for 3 types of treatment: trickling filter, activated sludge secondary treatment, and activated sludge plus advanced oxidation process as well as instream effluent dilution. In tier I, predicted effluent concentrations were compared with the lowest predicted‐no‐effect concentration (PNEC) obtained from the literature using safety factors as needed. A cumulative risk characterization ratio (cumRCR) < 1.0 indicates that risk is unlikely and no further action is needed. Otherwise, a tier 2 assessment is used, in which PNECs are based on trophic level. If tier 2 indicates a possible risk, then a retrospective assessment is recommended. In tier 1, the cumRCR was > 1.0 for all 3 treatment types in our scenario, even though no chemical exceeded a hazard quotient of 1.0 in activated sludge or advanced oxidation process. In tier 2, activated sludge yielded a lower cumRCR than trickling filter because of higher removal rates, and the cumRCR in the advanced oxidation process was << 1.0. Based on the maximum cumulative risk ratio (MCR), more than one‐third of the predicted risk was accounted for by one chemical, and at least 90% was accounted for by 3 chemicals, indicating that few chemicals influenced the mixture risk in our scenario. We show how a retrospective assessment can test whether certain chemicals hypothesized as potential drivers in the prospective assessment could have, or are having, deleterious effects on aquatic life.

Diamond, J., Altenburger, R., Coors, A., Dyer, S.D., Focazio, M., Kidd, K., Koelmans, A.A., Leung, K.M.Y., Servos, M.R., Snape, J., Tolls, J., Zhang, X. (2017), Use of prospective and retrospective risk assessment methods that simplify chemical mixtures associated with treated domestic wastewater discharges. Environ Toxicol Chem. 37: 690-702. doi.org/10.1002/etc.4013

Papers & ReportsHome and Personal Care Products, Human Pharmaceuticals, Water/Wastewater Assessments2015

A framework for screening sites at risk from contaminants of emerging concern

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Trace levels of a variety of currently unregulated organic chemicals have been detected in treated wastewater effluents and surface waters that receive treated effluents. Many of these chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) originate from pharmaceuticals and personal care products that are used widely and that frequently are transported “down the drain” to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Actual effects of CECs on aquatic life have been difficult to document, although biological effects consistent with effects of some CECs have been noted. There is a critical need to find appropriate ways to screen wastewater sites that have the greatest potential of CEC risk to biota. Building on the work of several researchers, the authors present a screening framework, as well as examples based on the framework, designed to identify high‐risk versus lower‐risk sites that are influenced by WWTP effluent. It is hoped that this framework can help researchers, utilities, and the larger water resource community focus efforts toward improving CEC risk determinations and management of these risks.

Diamond, J., Munkittrick, K., Kapo, K.E., Flippin, J. (2015), A framework for screening sites at risk from contaminants of emerging concern. Environ Toxicol Chem. 34: 2671-2681. doi:10.1002/etc.3177

PresentationsHome and Personal Care Products2018

Estimating environmental emissions and aquatic fate of sludge-bound CECs using spatial modeling and US datasets

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Abstract:
In the US, 50% of the sludge produced during wastewater treatment is recycled to land (www.epa.gov/biosolids). Some chemicals in consumer products may be highly removed during the wastewater treatment process due to sorption and binding to organic matter, ending up in sludge solids where it has the potential to be applied to land surfaces, subject to erosion or runoff processes potentially entering nearby surface waters. However, biosolids mass applied to land is not evenly distributed across the US landscape due to variable population density, local sludge management practices, and availability of land application sites. We have developed a proof-of-concept model to aide in the prospective assessment of CECs contained in WWTP sludge applied to land. This spatially-explicit, national model is based on publicly available datasets, combined with a spatial-hydrologic framework containing geographically variable emissions linked to a river network allowing for environmental transport via surface water. The hydrologic framework is based on a set of basins and rivers (www.hydrosheds.org) linked to emission characteristics for over 77,000 sub-basins. Emission characteristics are derived from facility data in the USEPA Clean Watersheds Needs Survey (www.epa.gov/cwns) to estimate consumer product usage linked to wastewater treatment, and spatially-variable data on biosolid applications. The USDA Cropland Data Layer (www.nass.usda.gov) provides potential land application sites, from which proximity to surface water plays a role in the potential for CECs to transport from land to freshwater (using a meta-model estimated from pesticide assessment models). Concentrations of CECs are routed through the river network based on local river attributes (e.g., flow) combined with assumptions about chemical fate in the aquatic environment. Results of various simulations show the spatial patterns of biosolids applications, potential to enter surface water, and estimated freshwater concentrations of an ingredient in a hypothetical consumer product. Implications of altering model assumptions are discussed. While the presented material is a simulated example of the environmental emission and fate of a consumer product ingredient, it represents a viable approach to assessing whether this pathway via land applied biosolids may be of concern for consumer product chemicals, and ultimately helping to inform environmental policy on this subject.

Christopher Holmes, Joshua Amos, Amy Ritter, and Marty Williams (Waterborne Environmental). Estimating environmental emissions and aquatic fate of sludge-bound CECs using spatial modeling and US datasets. Platform SETAC 2018. Sacramento, CA.

PostersHome and Personal Care Products2017

A Framework for Dynamic Estimation of Aquatic Environmental Concentrations of Microplastics Via WWTP Discharge

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Down-the-drain exposure models provide a valuable screening-level tool for estimating environmental exposure to substances which are treated and discharged at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Microplastics enter WWTPs from a variety of sources. As such, exposure models traditionally used for chemicals may also be utilized for particle emissions into the environment from WWTP discharge. These models often account for removal in WWTP as well as in-river decay processes. However, in light of incomplete and changing knowledge on microplastic fate in surface waters, we developed a framework in which microplastic use rates and general properties can be used to estimate the range of expected environmental concentrations depending on assumptions about removal and decay. We developed a web-based tool incorporating 10 removal rates and 10 decay rates encompassing the typical and extreme ranges of possible values. Each of the 100 model runs produces a distribution of Predicted Environmental Concentration (PECs) representing each effluent impacted stream as described by the iSTREEM® model which estimates spatially-explicit concentrations of chemicals in effluent and receiving waters across the US. Output visualization in the interactive tool includes a broad view of all possible combinations in a matrix format, and a detailed view of the full distribution of PECs for individual model runs. Within the matrix, each of the 100 individual cells correspond to a selected percentile of the PEC distribution (e.g., 95th percentile) for tha combination of removal and decay. We demonstrate the utility of this framework using WWTP influent loadings of polyethylene microbeads from liquid soaps and shower gels estimated using per-capita usage (Gouin et al 2011) and combine with individual facility population served and flow estimates using the iSTREEM model. We can the investigate the question … What kind of environmental concentrations might we estimate using these emissions? This dynamic framework can be used to help inform environmental exposure assessments by readily providing PECs based on varying model inputs on WWTP removal and in-stream decay rates for microplastics, which continues to evolve as more research is conducted. While this framework was applied to the US at a national scale, the framework itself is not geographic-dependent and could function equally well utilizing PEC distributions from Europe or elsewhere.

C.M. Holmes, R. Vamshi, N.Maples-Reynolds (Waterborne Environmental); I.A. Davies, B. Jonas (Personal Care Products Council), S.D. Dyer (The Procter & Gamble
Company / Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability Organization). A Framework for Dynamic Estimation of Aquatic Environmental Concentrations of Microplastics Via WWTP Discharge. SETAC EU 2017. Poster.

PresentationsHome and Personal Care Products2017

Integrating Treatment Facility and River Network Information to Model Spatially-Explicit Environmental Concentrations of Down-The-Drain Substances: ISTREEM

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iSTREEM® is a web-based model which estimates spatially-explicit environmental concentrations of down-the-drain chemicals in effluent and receiving waters across the USA. Concentrations are estimated at the discharge points of over 10,000 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and downstream receiving waters covering more than 350,000 km of rivers. The model incorporates WWTP information on population served, treatment type, and facility flow which are linked to a commonly used hydrology framework providing flow and hydrologic connectivity between facilities and downstream sites. As part of the hydrologic routing, a first-order decay is implemented to simulate environmental processes that remove chemical from the water column. The model allows for regional use rates to better simulate potential geographic variability in emissions, as well as differing removal rates to account for different facility treatment types. Given the assumption of temporally constant emission, the model is able to efficiently execute as a single, annual model run. The publicly available web-based model (www.iStreem.org) exemplifies open access to modeling resources, with no software installation required, and computation resources for model runs performed by the iSTREEM server. Users are able to save and retrieve runs, interact with results in a map format, or download source data and model results for more in-depth analysis by the user, including linking to desktop mapping software. The model, sponsored by the American Cleaning Institute (ACI, www.cleaninginstitute.org), is a valuable tool for both promoting product and ingredient stewardship and potential regulatory compliance for chemical suppliers and manufacturers of formulated products. The framework and modular nature of the model allow it to be applied to different geographies beyond the current USA-wide dataset.

C.M. Holmes, R. Vamshi (Waterborne Environmental); P. DeLeo, D. Ferrer (American Cleaning Institute); S.D. Dyer (The Procter & Gamble Company / Environmental Stewardship and Sustainability Organization). Integrating Treatment Facility and River Network Information to Model Spatially-Explicit Environmental Concentrations of Down-The-Drain Substances: ISTREEM. Presentation. SETAC Europe 2017.

PresentationsHome and Personal Care Products2017

Estimating Sewer Residence Time at the National Scale to Enable Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Down-The-Drain Household Consumer Product Ingredients

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Many household consumer product ingredients disposed of down-the-drain can undergo significant degradation in the sewer system prior to being treated and discharged from a wastewater treatment facility. Understanding the distribution of sewer residence times for wastewater at the national scale, in combination with in-sewer biodegradation data for specific chemicals, can provide a more realistic assessment of environmental exposure and risk. However, the availability of data for sewer residence times at the national or regional scale is currently limited. We overview how commonly-available data resources such as road networks, land use and population data, and wastewater treatment facility data can be analyzed spatially to estimate the distribution of sewer residence times at a national or regional scale. This approach was developed using case study sewer system data and extrapolated to a national dataset of over 3,400 wastewater treatment facilities across the U.S., yielding a national median residence time of 3.3 hours. We demonstrate how sewer residence time distributions derived by this spatial approach can be used as a tool to enable probabilistic risk assessment of down-the-drain household consumer product ingredients for a given country or region.

K.E. Kapo, R. Vamshi, M. Sebasky, C.M. Holmes (Waterborne Environmental), M. Paschka, K. McDonough (P&G). “Estimating Sewer Residence Time at the National Scale to Enable Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Down-The-Drain Household Consumer Product Ingredients”. Presentation. SETAC EU 2017.

PostersHome and Personal Care Products2016

A Spatial Approach for Estimating the National Distribution of Sewer Residence Times for Wastewaters in the U.S.

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Sewer residence time can have a significant influence on the environmental fate and transport of wastewater constituents, including down-the-drain household consumer product ingredients. In this study, best-available data resources and geoprocessing tools were used to develop a spatial approach for estimating the national distribution of sewer residence times for wastewaters in the U.S. Case studies estimating sewer residence times for two municipalities demonstrated that road networks could be used as a spatial proxy for sewer networks when the latter data is not available. The approach was then extrapolated to a national dataset of >3,400 wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) facilities across the U.S. to estimate the national distribution of sewer residence times, with an estimated national median sewer residence time of 3.3 hours. Sewer residence times for smaller WWTP facilities (< 1 million gallons per day) were comparatively shorter than larger facilities, however the latter comprised a greater proportion of the overall national wastewater volume. The sewer residence time distributions derived in this study can be combined with in-sewer biodegradation data to estimate WWTP influent concentrations of down-the-drain household consumer product ingredients as part of a national-scale probabilistic risk assessment.

Katherine Kapo, Raghu Vamshi, Megan Sebasky (Waterborne), Michael Paschka, Kathleen McDonough (P&G). “A Spatial Approach for Estimating the National Distribution of Sewer Residence Times for Wastewaters in the U.S.” Poster. SETAC NA 2016.