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Publications: Posters

PostersCrop Protection2019

Sources, characteristics and opportunities for pesticide use and usage information applied to listed species risk assessment

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SETAC 2019, RP225
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Integrating Pest Management, Risk Assessment and Environmental Sustainability
Thursday, November 7, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
The challenges inherent in national-level pesticide endangered species risk assessments are many, varied and have been the topic of meetings, workshops, presentations and publications for many years. One challenge is the identification and incorporation of pesticide usage information in the risk assessment process. Pesticide “usage” differs from pesticide “use”, where “use” is defined by registered labels and describes limits on how the pesticide may be applied (i.e., maximum rates and number of applications), while “usage” describes documented applications with specific information on each individual event. Incorporating usage information into the risk characterization during the Biological Evaluation and Biological Opinion development process is an area of renewed interest. This poster will describe several sources of pesticide usage information (e.g., USDA Agricultural Chemical Use Program, CA DPR Pesticide Use Reporting), and how relevant field-level pesticide application information can be extracted. Examples will be given showing how these data can be utilized to refine our understanding of specific active ingredients and their associated spatial and temporal variation across use areas, and how this can inform the exposure analysis within each Step of the ESA consultation process.

C. Holmes (Applied Analysis Solutions), J. Amos (Waterborne), M. Kern (Waterborne), N. Snyder (Waterborne), J. Cowles (TKI), K. Henry (TKI).  Sources, characteristics and opportunities for pesticide use and usage information applied to listed species risk assessment. Poster, SETAC 2019. RP225. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersCrop Protection2019

The utility of a weight-at-emergence endpoint in the 22-day larval assay for a pollinator risk assessment

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SETAC 2019, TP274
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Pesticides and Pollinators: Assessing Potential Risks at Colony and Population Level
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
USEPA has identified the 22-day honey bee larval assay as a Tier 1, screening-level toxicity study for assessing pesticide risk to bees. This repeat-dose larval study is based on the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidance Document 239, and methodology provided by Schmehl et al.(2016). During this study, first instar larvae are transferred from healthy colonies to grafting cells (day 1) and treated diet is administered between days 3 and 6. Survival is assessed at multiple stages of the test: daily between days 4 and 8 for larvae; day 15 for pupae; and day 22 (emergence time) for adults. However, at the request of the USEPA, adult weight at emergence has also been included as a study endpoint. The Pollinator Research Task Force (PRTF) is conducting an endpoint evaluation to compare the sensitivity of adult weight at emergence to that of the survival endpoint in this study design. A database was developed based on anonymized study data from PRTF member companies, as well as applicable studies from the open literature. The compiled data were evaluated both empirically and statistically with regard to endpoint sensitivity. Statistically significant effects based on survival and adult weight at emergence were compared. No- and Lowest-Observed-Effect Dose (NOED and LOED) values, as well as 50% lethal and effect dose (LD50 and ED50) values were also compared between the endpoints. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were compared graphically and statistically to quantify the variability in each metric and determine significant differences. A pairing structure was also used to assess correlation, which could be graphed and statistically analyzed. This presentation outlines the methods used during this project, the results of the endpoint analyses, and concluding findings on the endpoint sensitivity comparison between survival and adult weight at emergence.

B. Sharma (FMC), D. Schmehl (Bayer), J. Collins (Waterborne), F. Abi-Akar (Waterborne), J. Jackson (Waterborne).  The utility of a weight-at-emergence endpoint in the 22-day larval assay for a pollinator risk assessment. Poster, SETAC 2019. TP274. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Practical Advancements in Endangered Species Risk Assessment Efficiency

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SETAC 2019, TP253
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Ecological Risk Assessment: What Matters and Prioritization of Resources
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
With the release of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) organophosphate case studies for endangered species risk assessment, it became clear that the methods used in the biological evaluations and biological opinion need refinement for identifying risk to listed species and the critical habitat on which they may depend. With hundreds of pesticide registration actions annually, and more than 1,660 species listed under the Endangered Species Act, it is critical to be able to conduct a scientifically defensible risk assessment efficiently with limited time and resources. However, confidence must be high that the listed species or the critical habitat on which they depend can readily be identified as being not at risk, or at potential risk. The recently released EPA revised method for developing biological evaluations addresses some aspects of these short comings, by recognizing early in the problem formulation process that some listed species will not be exposed to a pesticide for a variety of reasons (e.g., they are extinct or extirpated; only found on federal lands). However, there are many possible additional considerations that matter, can be accounted for, and may vary on a pesticide by pesticide basis. These include label restrictions, simple spatial refinement, specific fate/behavior characteristics, listed species life history information, known and previously evaluated pesticide tolerances, and other factors. In a CropLife America funded project, these practical advancements are being identified and evaluated for use in the problem formulation process. In this presentation, the carbamate pesticide carbaryl is used to evaluate the impact of these factors on the endangered species risk assessment process, along with examples from other chemistries to more clearly show their utility.

S. Teed (Intrinsik), M. Kern (Waterborne), J. Cowles (TKI).  Practical Advancements in Endangered Species Risk Assessment Efficiency. Poster, SETAC 2019. TP253. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersWater/Wastewater Assessments2019

Modeling aquatic and terrestrial transport pathways for microplastics entering WWTP systems

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SETAC 2019, TP144
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Microplastics in the Environment: Transport, Fate and Ecological Effects
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
Microplastics may enter the environment from a number of sources and in many forms. Plastic particles may be present as influent into municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A large portion of these are removed from the water phase during the treatment process, and generally end up in the solids (i.e., sludge). Sludge disposal varies by country, region and locality, including landfill, incinerator, compost, or as land-applied biosolids. There is potential for particles in biosolid applications to reach aquatic systems depending on application location and subsequent environmental conditions. We present a broad-scale model designed to estimate emissions and model the fate of plastic particles exiting WWTPs into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, using spatially-explicit information on WWTPs, river hydrology and terrestrial transport potential. This regional/continental scale model is based on publicly available datasets and contained in a modular and transparent framework which is scalable and portable to multiple geographies. This presentation will demonstrate the utility of the model as applied to different regions, and how the resulting information about ultimate mass disposition within the environment (e.g., soil, freshwater, sediment, marine) and surface water concentrations can be examined to help inform the discussion about prospectively assessing the presence and concentration of microplastic particles in the environment as emitted by WWTPs.

C. Holmes (Applied Analysis Solutions), J. Amos (Waterborne), S. Dyer (Waterborne). Modeling aquatic and terrestrial transport pathways for microplastics entering WWTP systems. Poster, SETAC 2019. TP144. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersHome and Personal Care Products, Water/Wastewater Assessments2019

Moving toward a spatially-resolved global surface water flow and aquatic exposure model for consumer-use down-the-drain ingredients: Japan case study

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SETAC 2019, MP123
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Challenges in Characterizing Exposures to Organic Chemicals: Multiple Sources, Multiple Pathways and Multiple Scales
Monday, November 4, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
Exposure assessment is a key factor in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of consumer products that are disposed down-the-drain and involves estimating concentrations of ingredients in receiving waters. There is an opportunity to develop a globally-harmonized spatially explicit aquatic exposure model for down-the-drain ingredients by leveraging the growing availability of computational methods and large spatial datasets. Current models often assume average conditions across a country/region in a deterministic calculation, while, in reality, there can be substantial spatial variation in input parameters (e.g., emissions, per capita water use, and waste water treatment) across a region. While spatial variability has been addressed by some models, they have focused on a single country/region; and there is a need for a user-friendly, global aquatic exposure model on a single platform with a consistent approach, using best available data. The iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute) is a spatially-explicit aquatic exposure model parameterized and evaluated primarily for the United States. The model has also been extended to China and evaluation has indicated excellent agreement between modeled and measured river flow data. There was also excellent agreement between case study modeled and monitored chemical concentrations. This platform was leveraged and extended to cover Japan and follows a framework that uses global datasets to estimate river flow on a catchment level, rout chemicals between catchments, and estimate catchment-specific concentrations. Each catchment is parameterized with a specific population, per capita water use, and waste water treatment plant (WWTP) information; and allows for spatial variation in emissions. For Japan, spatial locations of WWTPs were incorporated into the model and the resulting population served by WWTP treatment corresponds well with published reports of treatment levels. Direct discharge of grey water was included to represent current practice in some areas of Japan. Measured river flow data and case study chemicals with available monitoring data were used to evaluate the flow predictions and concentration distributions estimated by the model. Thus, this model framework provides a promising platform for expansion as a global aquatic exposure model for down-the-drain ingredients.

S. Csiszar (P&G), R. Vamshi (Waterborne), M. Fan (P&G), K. McDonough (P&G).  Moving toward a spatially-resolved global surface water flow and aquatic exposure model for consumer-use down-the-drain ingredients: Japan case study. Poster, SETAC 2019. MP123. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Addressing multiple factors impacting honey bee colonies in large colony feeding studies with a mechanistic honey bee colony model

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ACS 2019, AGRO 308
San Diego, California
Session Title: Pollinators in Agroecosystems:  Current Science Issues & Risk Assessment Approaches
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
11:30 am, Poster Session

Abstract:

Honey bee Large Colony Feeding Studies (LCFS) are conducted as a novel type of Tier II semi-field study for the determination of potential effects of pesticides on free-foraging whole colonies during and after dietary intake of a known pesticide concentration. This study design represents a progressively more realistic level of refinement compared to individual laboratory-based studies. However, observed winter losses of control colonies indicate that stressors other than pesticides, e.g. resource availability, weather, diseases and beekeeping activities, likely influence colony condition and overwintering survival, confounding the assessment of impacts caused by pesticides. In the current study commissioned by the Pollinator Research Task Force, we apply the mechanistic honey bee colony model BEEHAVE to simulate colony dynamics observed in negative control colonies from multiple colony feeding studies. In the modeling approach, factors impacting colonies can be fully controlled and their impacts on colony condition can be assessed systematically. Study data from control colonies in seven LCFS were available and colony condition data collected in summer and fall were analyzed for predictors of overwintering success of individual colonies. The BEEHAVE simulations were parameterized with apiary-specific data available from the studies, including landscape-level resource availability, weather, initial colony condition and feeding patterns. BEEHAVE was calibrated and validated to simulate reported colony condition across the study period. BEEHAVE simulations with different combinations of external factors were used to assess their importance for colony condition. Colony conditions at study initialization and feeding patterns both influenced the colony condition in the fall, and thus, the probability of overwintering survival. Model simulations with different colony feeding patterns and initial colony conditions were then used to quantitatively estimate colony-level outcomes under conditions deviating from those in the studies. These results provide insight into the importance of factors related to study conditions and can be used to improve and inform LCFS study designs. Pesticide effects can be included in future model analyses, and analyzed in the context of multiple factors that impact colony health and overwintering success.

A. Schmolke, F. Abi-Akar, D. Perkins (Waterborne), N. Galic (Syngenta Crop Protection LLC), S. Hinarejos (Sumitomo Chemical Company Ltd).  Addressing multiple factors imapcting honey bee colonies in large colony feeding studies with a mechanistic honey bee colony model. Poster, ACS 2019.  AGRO 308. San Diego, California.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Common issues in agrochemical risk communication

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ACS 2019, AGRO 290
San Diego, California
Session Title: Environmental Fate, Transport, & DRIFT Modeling of Agrichemicals
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
11:30 am, Poster Session

Abstract:

A great deal of the problems with communicating risk from agrochemical exposure arises from intrinsic uncertainties in exposure and toxicity calculations. The probability of exposure and the meaning of exposure levels and duration are also challenging to express and convey the significance to stakeholders.

D. Barrett (Office of Pesticide Programs, US EPA), M. Williams (Waterborne).  Common issues in agrochemical risk communication.  Poster, ACS 2019.  AGRO 290. San Diego, California.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Outcomes from an ECETOC task force on geospatial approaches to increasing the ecological relevance of chemical risk assessments

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SETAC Europe 2019, Poster
Helsinki, Finland
Session Title: 4D-Risk Assessment
Monday, May 27, 2019
5:15 pm, Exhibition Hall

Abstract:
For several decades, the prospective risk assessment of chemicals has followed a generic approach of comparing estimated exposures to toxic thresholds designed to be protective of all species (i.e., assessing exposure to the most sensitive species assumed to be located anywhere the chemical may occur in the environment). This approach does not recognise geographic patterns of species distributions or acknowledge that particularly sensitive species may not occupy potentially exposed habitats. Therefore, risk assessments could be overly conservative and restrictive for some uses of chemicals. Approaches for making spatially explicit assessments of chemical exposure are relatively advanced but this is not the case for mapping and assessing ecological data. However, geo-referenced ecological data appear to be increasingly available at spatial resolutions applicable to chemical risk assessment, potentially facilitating enhanced environmental relevance of such risk assessments. In 2017 a Task Force was initiated by European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) to assess the capability of making chemical risk assessments using available geospatially referenced chemical exposure, ecological receptor and ecosystem services data. Two case studies were developed to illustrate the potential to assess geo-referenced risks to ecological receptors in fresh water and terrestrial environments exposed to i) a chemical used in consumer cleaning products discharged via municipal WWTPs across the EU and ii) a range of representative active ingredients used in plant protection products on selected crops in Germany. After initially compiling a catalogue of available geo-referenced ecological data for Europe, geo-referenced exposure concentrations were derived by combining accessible chemical use and fate data with conventional exposure models. However, use of many ecological data sets over a pan-European range proved problematic due to data access issues, limited geographic coverage and unreliable quality. Nevertheless, several suitable ecological data sets were accessed after making specific requests to various organisations within national authorities and these were integrated with the exposure maps. The results of these case studies give an indication of the potential value of making geo-referenced chemical risk assessments as well as the limitations to current capability.

S. Marshall (Consultant), A. Ireland (ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences), J.C. Otte (BASF), L. Maltby (presenter; University of Sheffield), C. Holmes (Waterborne Environmental), and P. Sweeney (Syngenta). Outcomes from an ECETOC task force on geospatial approaches to increasing the ecological relevance of chemical risk assessments. Poster SETAC Europe 2019. Helsinki, Finland.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Applying the mechanistic honey bee colony model BEEHAVE to assess multiple factors impacting overwintering survival in large colony feeding studies

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SETAC Europe 2019, Poster
Helsinki, Finland
Session Title: Bees, bugs and beneficials in environmental risk assessment and testing
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
8:30 am, Exhibition Hall

Abstract:
Honey bee Large Colony Feeding Study (LCFS) is a novel type of Tier II semi-field study for the determination of potential effects of pesticides on free-foraging whole colonies during and after dietary intake of a known pesticide concentration. LCFS are currently accepted by North American regulatory agencies and represent a progressively more realistic level of refinement compared to individual laboratory-based studies. LCFS are designed to test toxicity via consumption of fed sucrose syrup over a worst case exposure scenario of six weeks, with colony assessments conditions over a foraging season and following overwintering period. However, such studies are very cost- and time-intensive, and high overwintering losses of control hives have been observed in some studies. Loss of control colonies indicates that stressors other than pesticides, e.g. resource availability, weather, diseases and beekeeping activities, likely influence colony overwintering survival, confounding the assessment of impacts caused by pesticides. In the current study commissioned by the Pollinator Research Task Force, we apply the mechanistic honey bee colony model BEEHAVE to simulate colony dynamics observed in negative control colonies from multiple colony feeding studies. Detailed landscape-level data inform the resource availability for the simulated foragers in the model. In addition, weather data, initial colony condition and feeding patterns were analyzed across studies and translated to model inputs. In a calibration step, we adjusted parameters in BEEHAVE to achieve simulated dynamics corresponding to colony conditions reported in the studies. Study data collected in summer and fall were analyzed for predictors of overwintering success of individual colonies. BEEHAVE simulations with different combinations of external factors were used to assess their importance for colony condition. Colony conditions at study initialization and feeding patterns both influenced the colony condition in the fall, and thus, the probability of overwintering survival. Model simulations with different colony feeding patterns and initial colony conditions were then used to quantitatively estimate colony-level outcomes under conditions deviating from those in the studies. These results can be used to improve and inform LCFS study designs. Pesticide effects can be included in future model analyses, and analyzed in the context of multiple factors that impact colony health and overwintering success.

Amelie Schmolke (Waterborne Environmental), Farah Abi-Akar (Waterborne Environmental), Nika Galic (Syngenta), Silvia Hinarejos (presenter; Sumitomo Chemical Co.). Applying the mechanistic honey bee colony model BEEHAVE to assess multiple factors impacting overwintering survival in large colony feeding studies. Poster SETAC Europe 2019. Helsinki, Finland.

PostersWater/Wastewater Assessments2019

Modelling emissions of microplastics in Europe from wastewater sources, including land applied biosolids

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Abstract:
Public information regarding microplastics in the environment is frequently available and comes from a variety of sources, often in the form of retrospective sources such as measured aquatic data. Science-based risk assessment must utilize both retrospective and prospective exposure information to effectively estimate potential risk to ecological receptors. While monitoring data provide information at only a few locations for several points in time, prospective models can estimate the potential for ecological exposures across many landscapes and over long periods of time, and both have a role in risk assessment. Wastewater treatment plants are often cited as a source of microplastics entering the environment. Microplastics are highly removed (generally >90%) during the waste water treatment process, via skimming of floating particles or sorption to solids and settling into sludge. Understanding the eventual fate of this sludge, and the potential for contained microplastics to re-enter surface water, is one step of many in determining the fate of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Sludge management in Europe varies geographically, with up to 90% of sludge used on agriculture in Portugal, and 0% in other countries (Eurostat, 2017) with other disposal including incineration, landfill or composting. We present a model which addresses both direct aquatic emissions into surface water via waste water effluent, as well as indirectly from land applied biosolids coupled with spatially-defined surface runoff potential. Generalized runoff potential is estimated using fate and transport models used for plant protection products found in the EFSA FOCUS scenarios. To our knowledge, this coupling of direct aquatic emission and sludge-biosolids-runoff is a novel approach for examining environmental emissions of microplastics which enter municipal wastewater treatment plants. This spatially-explicit model is based on publicly available datasets, combined with a hydrologic framework containing geographically variable emissions linked to a river network simulating environmental transport via surface water.

Christopher Holmes, Joshua Amos, Amy Ritter, Marty Williams, and Scott Dyer (Waterborne Environmental). Modelling emissions of microplastics in Europe from wastewater sources, including land applied biosolids. Poster SETAC Europe 2019. Helsinki, Finland.