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PostersAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

A Novel Approach for Estimating Flow During Submerged Tile Conditions

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ASABE 2021 Annual Meeting, July 2021

Session:  Natural Resource and Environmental Systems (#23 Drainage Group)

Abstract: Accurate tile flow rate and flow volume estimates are critical to estimating subsurface nutrient runoff. Efforts have been made to improve the accuracy and ease of flow estimates during free flow conditions using water level control structures paired with weirs and water level instrumentation. However, in fields experiencing submerged tile conditions, few options exist for estimating tile flow beyond installing velocity-based flow instrumentation, which is often cost-prohibitive. This work proposes a method for estimating flow rate and volume during submerged tile conditions by taking into account flow proportion of monitored and unmonitored tile laterals based on field flow lines, assessing the proportion of tile main runoff attributed to each lateral using historical free-flowing event data, and applying the new lateral flow proportions in conjunction with weir equations to produce a modified flow calculation. This method is applied to a sample field research site with 45 total tile laterals (18 monitored, 27 unmonitored) using water level data for flow events between 2017-2020.

Authors:  Patricia Paulausky, Farah Abi-Akar, Russell Krueger (Waterborne Environmental), Laura Gentry (Illinois Corn Growers Association), Gregory Goodwin (Waterborne Environmental).  ASABE 2021 Annual International Meeting.

PostersCrop Protection2021

Impact of Climate Change on the Relevance of OECD Crosswalks

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Session:  Extended submission 3 – Environmental chemistry and exposure assessment: analysis, monitoring, fate and modeling

Abstract:  Climate change studies confirm that the earth is warming up and that shifts in rainfall patterns is occurring. Various computer models predict that Earth’s average temperature will rise between 1.8° and 4.0° Celsius (3.2° and 7.2° F). Consequently, these warmer temperatures will cause a higher rate of evaporation, resulting in a predicted increase of average global rainfall by 3-5%. Under OCED guidance, TFD studies conducted in one country can be applicable to other countries if the characteristics of overlapping ecoregions are the same. These assessments are conducted using the OECD ENASGIPS tool. If these characteristics change, so will the similarity assessment and therefore the potential relevance of TFD sites. With increase rainfall, TFD sites in the Southeastern US, which typically have few similar areas, may become more relevant because other areas are getting wetter. Likewise, TFD sites in arid ecoregions may see a decrease in similarity scores. In this presentation we show that TFD studies in arid regions in the US remain relevant for foreseeable future.The objective of this assessment was to determine if climate change will impact the relevance of TFD studies and OECD ENASGIPS crosswalks ecoregion similarity scores. Specifically, we were interested in determining if ecoregions overlapping TFD sites remain the same over time in terms of precipitation, temperature, and ecoregion similarity. Both statistical analysis and ecoregion crosswalk assessments were conducted. In this presentation we will focus on an arid in California’s Central Valley using the intermediate IPCC RCP4.5 and worse case RCP8.5 climate change scenarios. Results indicate that under moderate climate change scenario the arid ecoregion has an increase in the number of similar ecoregion over time but a decrease is observed under the worse case scenario. In the short-term, 30 to 40 years, TFD studies are not predicted to see an impact by of climate change and data obtained from these TFD studies can be used for registration and reregistration of pesticides for the foreseeable future.

Authors:  Cornelis Hoogeweg, Amy Ritter, Raghu Vamshi, Dean Desmarteau (Waterborne).  SETAC Europe 2021.

PostersCrop Protection2021

Identification of Patterns in Mesocosm Data: An Analysis of Untreated Control Ecosystems Across Multiple Studies

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Session: Effect Modelling for Regulatory Environmental Risk Assessment of Chemicals: Where Are We and What Comes Next?

Abstract: For risk assessment, experimental mesocosms provide valuable insights into the complex responses of aquatic ecosystems to stressors. Similarly, aquatic systems models (ASMs) represent food web interactions in an aquatic species community and interactions with abiotic environmental conditions. In the context of a study to simulate mesocosms using ASMs, an analysis of control mesocosm data was conducted to identify patterns in temporal dynamics in the species communities. Control data from six mesocosm studies were anonymized, collated, and characterized using visual and statistical analyses. The data were generated during studies conducted in 2016, 2018 and 2019 by MESOCOSM GmbH. During these studies, physical parameters of temperature, oxygen, pH, water level and conductivity were measured over the study duration. Nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate concentrations and water hardness were measured prior to the beginning of each study. Additionally, weekly samples were collected for taxon and species abundance evaluation. The resulting dynamics of phytoplankton, periphyton, macrophytes, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates were analyzed for each study data set and across studies. Correlation matrices were constructed and used to examine the data and identify consistent patterns of biotic and abiotic interactions. The trends observed within and across the studies show considerable temporal variability in species composition and abundance. The characterization and understanding of similar and repeated temporal patterns in the untreated aquatic mesocosms is an important foundation for the simulation of mesocosm studies using ASMs. We provide perspectives on the challenges associated with variability observed in mesocosm controls, and offer possible explanation and insights for managing these challenges in modeling.

Authors: Farah Abi-Akar (Waterborne), Amelie Schmolke (Waterborne), Peter Ebke (Mesocosm GmbH), Jürgen Schmidt (Mesocosm GmbH), Nika Galic (Syngenta), Steven Bartell (Cardno), Isabel O’Connor (EBP), Simon Spycher (EBP), Nele Schuwirth (EAWAG), Tido Strauss (Gaiac), Damian Preziosi (Integral), Robert Pastorok (Integral), Roman Ashauer (Syngenta).  SETAC Europe 2021.

PostersWater/Wastewater Assessments2020

Geospatial model to estimate microplastics entering waterways from wastewater systems and land applied biosolids

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ACS 2020, AGRO 150
Session Title: Environmental Fate of Agrochemicals

Abstract:

There is a need for exposure models to simulate the pathways and transport of such particles in waterways especially with increasing public awareness about the presence of microplastics in the environment. Microplastics may enter the environment from various sources and in many forms. One source includes personal care products containing plastic particles being washed down residential drains and entering municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A large portion of these plastic particles are removed from the water phase during the treatment process, and generally end up in the solids (i.e., sludge). Sludge disposal varies by country, region and locality, including landfill, incinerator, compost, or as land-applied biosolids. There is potential for particles in biosolid applications to reach aquatic systems depending on application location and subsequent environmental conditions. This poster will present a broad-scale model designed to estimate emissions and model the fate of plastic particles exiting WWTPs into the terrestrial and aquatic environments in Europe. The model uses geospatial information on WWTPs, river hydrology and terrestrial transport potential. This regional/continental scale model is based on publicly available datasets and contained in a modular and transparent framework which is scalable and portable to multiple geographies. This presentation will demonstrate the utility of the model and how the resulting information about ultimate mass disposition (e.g., soil, freshwater, sediment, marine) and concentrations (surface water, sediment) can be used to help inform the discussion about prospectively assessing the presence and concentration of microplastics in the environment as emitted by WWTPs as effluent or transport from fields applied with biosolids.

A. Ritter, C. Roy, C. Hoogeweg (Waterborne), C. Holmes (Applied Analysis Solutions, LLC). Geospatial model to estimate microplastics entering waterways from wastewater systems and land applied biosolids. AGRO 150, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

Posters2020

Assessment of potentially vulnerable use areas in western Africa

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ACS 2020, AGRO 46
Session Title: Analysis of Agriculturally-Important Chemicals

Abstract:

The Acetochlor Registration Partnership (ARP; Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto Company) developed voluntary acetochlor Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce the potential for the active substance to reach ground water and surface water. As part of an ongoing global acetochlor stewardship support, a study has been conducted to determine the co-occurrence between acetochlor use on crops and potentially vulnerable soils in the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (French: Comité permanent inter-État de lutte contre la sécheresse au Sahel, aka CILSS) countries. The assessment was focused on high potential use areas of acetochlor, within the CILSS, for two representative crops (corn and cotton). The geospatial analysis performed identified approximately 462 million hectares (ha) of potentially vulnerable soils in the CILSS of which 65.7 million ha of soils are within agricultural areas. Acetochlor product labels approved in the US by the US Environmental Protection Agency, restrict applications on vulnerable soils within 50 feet of any well where depth to ground water is ≤ 9 m. Other agricultural BMPs for applying acetochlor products in the US are designed to minimize run-off to surface water. Approximately 0.24% of agricultural fields (0.159 million ha of soils) in the CILSS are in areas of shallow groundwater. In addition, 0.02 % (0.0128 million ha) were determined to be adjacent to surface water bodies. The analysis provides evidence that only small portions of vulnerable agricultural soils in the CILSS may be at risk for acetochlor contamination by means of leaching to groundwater or surface runoff. The approach could be expanded to other regions to inform water quality management decisions for products containing acetochlor.

C. Hoogeweg (Waterborne), M.A. Thomas (O3A, Monsanto Company), N. Pai (O3A, Monsanto Company), J. Schleier (Dow AgroSciences). Assessment of poentially vulnerable use areas in western Africa. AGRO 46, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Sources, characteristics and opportunities for pesticide use and usage information applied to listed species risk assessment

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SETAC 2019, RP225
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Integrating Pest Management, Risk Assessment and Environmental Sustainability
Thursday, November 7, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
The challenges inherent in national-level pesticide endangered species risk assessments are many, varied and have been the topic of meetings, workshops, presentations and publications for many years. One challenge is the identification and incorporation of pesticide usage information in the risk assessment process. Pesticide “usage” differs from pesticide “use”, where “use” is defined by registered labels and describes limits on how the pesticide may be applied (i.e., maximum rates and number of applications), while “usage” describes documented applications with specific information on each individual event. Incorporating usage information into the risk characterization during the Biological Evaluation and Biological Opinion development process is an area of renewed interest. This poster will describe several sources of pesticide usage information (e.g., USDA Agricultural Chemical Use Program, CA DPR Pesticide Use Reporting), and how relevant field-level pesticide application information can be extracted. Examples will be given showing how these data can be utilized to refine our understanding of specific active ingredients and their associated spatial and temporal variation across use areas, and how this can inform the exposure analysis within each Step of the ESA consultation process.

C. Holmes (Applied Analysis Solutions), J. Amos (Waterborne), M. Kern (Waterborne), N. Snyder (Waterborne), J. Cowles (TKI), K. Henry (TKI).  Sources, characteristics and opportunities for pesticide use and usage information applied to listed species risk assessment. Poster, SETAC 2019. RP225. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersCrop Protection2019

The utility of a weight-at-emergence endpoint in the 22-day larval assay for a pollinator risk assessment

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SETAC 2019, TP274
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Pesticides and Pollinators: Assessing Potential Risks at Colony and Population Level
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
USEPA has identified the 22-day honey bee larval assay as a Tier 1, screening-level toxicity study for assessing pesticide risk to bees. This repeat-dose larval study is based on the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidance Document 239, and methodology provided by Schmehl et al.(2016). During this study, first instar larvae are transferred from healthy colonies to grafting cells (day 1) and treated diet is administered between days 3 and 6. Survival is assessed at multiple stages of the test: daily between days 4 and 8 for larvae; day 15 for pupae; and day 22 (emergence time) for adults. However, at the request of the USEPA, adult weight at emergence has also been included as a study endpoint. The Pollinator Research Task Force (PRTF) is conducting an endpoint evaluation to compare the sensitivity of adult weight at emergence to that of the survival endpoint in this study design. A database was developed based on anonymized study data from PRTF member companies, as well as applicable studies from the open literature. The compiled data were evaluated both empirically and statistically with regard to endpoint sensitivity. Statistically significant effects based on survival and adult weight at emergence were compared. No- and Lowest-Observed-Effect Dose (NOED and LOED) values, as well as 50% lethal and effect dose (LD50 and ED50) values were also compared between the endpoints. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were compared graphically and statistically to quantify the variability in each metric and determine significant differences. A pairing structure was also used to assess correlation, which could be graphed and statistically analyzed. This presentation outlines the methods used during this project, the results of the endpoint analyses, and concluding findings on the endpoint sensitivity comparison between survival and adult weight at emergence.

B. Sharma (FMC), D. Schmehl (Bayer), J. Collins (Waterborne), F. Abi-Akar (Waterborne), J. Jackson (Waterborne).  The utility of a weight-at-emergence endpoint in the 22-day larval assay for a pollinator risk assessment. Poster, SETAC 2019. TP274. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Practical Advancements in Endangered Species Risk Assessment Efficiency

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SETAC 2019, TP253
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Ecological Risk Assessment: What Matters and Prioritization of Resources
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
With the release of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) organophosphate case studies for endangered species risk assessment, it became clear that the methods used in the biological evaluations and biological opinion need refinement for identifying risk to listed species and the critical habitat on which they may depend. With hundreds of pesticide registration actions annually, and more than 1,660 species listed under the Endangered Species Act, it is critical to be able to conduct a scientifically defensible risk assessment efficiently with limited time and resources. However, confidence must be high that the listed species or the critical habitat on which they depend can readily be identified as being not at risk, or at potential risk. The recently released EPA revised method for developing biological evaluations addresses some aspects of these short comings, by recognizing early in the problem formulation process that some listed species will not be exposed to a pesticide for a variety of reasons (e.g., they are extinct or extirpated; only found on federal lands). However, there are many possible additional considerations that matter, can be accounted for, and may vary on a pesticide by pesticide basis. These include label restrictions, simple spatial refinement, specific fate/behavior characteristics, listed species life history information, known and previously evaluated pesticide tolerances, and other factors. In a CropLife America funded project, these practical advancements are being identified and evaluated for use in the problem formulation process. In this presentation, the carbamate pesticide carbaryl is used to evaluate the impact of these factors on the endangered species risk assessment process, along with examples from other chemistries to more clearly show their utility.

S. Teed (Intrinsik), M. Kern (Waterborne), J. Cowles (TKI).  Practical Advancements in Endangered Species Risk Assessment Efficiency. Poster, SETAC 2019. TP253. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersWater/Wastewater Assessments2019

Modeling aquatic and terrestrial transport pathways for microplastics entering WWTP systems

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SETAC 2019, TP144
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Microplastics in the Environment: Transport, Fate and Ecological Effects
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
Microplastics may enter the environment from a number of sources and in many forms. Plastic particles may be present as influent into municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A large portion of these are removed from the water phase during the treatment process, and generally end up in the solids (i.e., sludge). Sludge disposal varies by country, region and locality, including landfill, incinerator, compost, or as land-applied biosolids. There is potential for particles in biosolid applications to reach aquatic systems depending on application location and subsequent environmental conditions. We present a broad-scale model designed to estimate emissions and model the fate of plastic particles exiting WWTPs into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, using spatially-explicit information on WWTPs, river hydrology and terrestrial transport potential. This regional/continental scale model is based on publicly available datasets and contained in a modular and transparent framework which is scalable and portable to multiple geographies. This presentation will demonstrate the utility of the model as applied to different regions, and how the resulting information about ultimate mass disposition within the environment (e.g., soil, freshwater, sediment, marine) and surface water concentrations can be examined to help inform the discussion about prospectively assessing the presence and concentration of microplastic particles in the environment as emitted by WWTPs.

C. Holmes (Applied Analysis Solutions), J. Amos (Waterborne), S. Dyer (Waterborne). Modeling aquatic and terrestrial transport pathways for microplastics entering WWTP systems. Poster, SETAC 2019. TP144. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersHome and Personal Care Products, Water/Wastewater Assessments2019

Moving toward a spatially-resolved global surface water flow and aquatic exposure model for consumer-use down-the-drain ingredients: Japan case study

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SETAC 2019, MP123
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Challenges in Characterizing Exposures to Organic Chemicals: Multiple Sources, Multiple Pathways and Multiple Scales
Monday, November 4, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
Exposure assessment is a key factor in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of consumer products that are disposed down-the-drain and involves estimating concentrations of ingredients in receiving waters. There is an opportunity to develop a globally-harmonized spatially explicit aquatic exposure model for down-the-drain ingredients by leveraging the growing availability of computational methods and large spatial datasets. Current models often assume average conditions across a country/region in a deterministic calculation, while, in reality, there can be substantial spatial variation in input parameters (e.g., emissions, per capita water use, and waste water treatment) across a region. While spatial variability has been addressed by some models, they have focused on a single country/region; and there is a need for a user-friendly, global aquatic exposure model on a single platform with a consistent approach, using best available data. The iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute) is a spatially-explicit aquatic exposure model parameterized and evaluated primarily for the United States. The model has also been extended to China and evaluation has indicated excellent agreement between modeled and measured river flow data. There was also excellent agreement between case study modeled and monitored chemical concentrations. This platform was leveraged and extended to cover Japan and follows a framework that uses global datasets to estimate river flow on a catchment level, rout chemicals between catchments, and estimate catchment-specific concentrations. Each catchment is parameterized with a specific population, per capita water use, and waste water treatment plant (WWTP) information; and allows for spatial variation in emissions. For Japan, spatial locations of WWTPs were incorporated into the model and the resulting population served by WWTP treatment corresponds well with published reports of treatment levels. Direct discharge of grey water was included to represent current practice in some areas of Japan. Measured river flow data and case study chemicals with available monitoring data were used to evaluate the flow predictions and concentration distributions estimated by the model. Thus, this model framework provides a promising platform for expansion as a global aquatic exposure model for down-the-drain ingredients.

S. Csiszar (P&G), R. Vamshi (Waterborne), M. Fan (P&G), K. McDonough (P&G).  Moving toward a spatially-resolved global surface water flow and aquatic exposure model for consumer-use down-the-drain ingredients: Japan case study. Poster, SETAC 2019. MP123. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.