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PresentationsCrop Protection2020

Towards an efficient and improved approach for assessing risks of pesticides to endangered species in the United States: Methomyl case study

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ACS 2020, AGRO 178
Session Title: Integrating Species Conservation with Pesticides from Bench to Market
Available Monday, August 17, 2020 at 8:00am

Abstract:

Under the Endangered Species Act, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Services (National Marine Fisheries Service and Fish & Wildlife Service) are required to assess potential risks to threatened and endangered (listed) species as part of the process to register pesticides. EPA issued interim guidance for developing biological evaluations (BE) for pesticides in 2015. Since then, the EPA, the Services, the regulated community and others have continued to develop and refine national endangered species risk assessment (ESRA) methodologies, first with 3 organophosphates and recently with two carbamates, carbaryl and methomyl. In March 2020, EPA issued revised guidance for conducting BEs. Much, however, remains to be done to develop the most efficient, practical and scientifically defensible approach. Therefore, we are developing an improved scientific approach with methods that more efficiently screen out listed species that are not at risk earlier in the tiered assessment process. The approach begins with simple methods such as off-ramping (e.g., screening out listed species that have no potential for exposure); conservative, protective screening-level risk assessments to screen out entire receptor groups that are tolerant of exposure; and co-occurrence analyses to screen out species not present in pesticide use areas. We are developing spatially explicit, species-specific tools for each major receptor group to determine which listed species are potentially at risk using more advanced, but still protective, methods. Using methomyl as a case study, we demonstrate how these early tier methods can efficiently reduce the formidable scope of a national ESRA to focus on those listed species most at risk. The latter species would then proceed to probabilistic, more refined modeling and proper weight-of-evidence assessments.

D. Moore (Intrinsik), S. Teed (Intrinsik), C. Priest (Stone), M. Winchell (Stone), H. Rathjens (Stone), A. Frank (CSI), J. Giddings (CSI), M. Kern (Balance EcoSolutions), N. J. Snyder (Waterborne), T.M. Blickley (Corteva Agriscience), P.L. Havens (Dow AgroSciences).
Towards an efficient and improved approach for assessing risks of pesticides to endangered species in the United States: Methomyl case study. AGRO 178, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

Presentations2020

Reflections on our AGRO division: Fifty years of engagement

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ACS 2020, AGRO 72
Session Title: Chemistry for Sustainable Agriculture and Public Health: AGRO Evolution and Future Opportunities
Monday, August 17, 2020 8:00AM

Abstract:

This talk will cover AGRO Division’s fifty year relationship with the broader aspects of agrochemical history. We will embark on a historical look back at AGRO’s role as a crucible for discussions of emerging issues in the protection of agricultural productivity, public health and the environment with engagement across industry, academia, and key government agencies. We will highlight key aspects of our division’s governance that have positioned us for meaningful AGRO awards, international participation, student engagement and career development opportunities for all.

As part of the celebration plans, a 50th Timeline Team formed to capture submitted milestones from across our AGRO membership; the results of those efforts inform this talk.

C. Barnett Cleveland (BASF), A.Ritter (Waterborne), T.A. Wehner. Reflections on our AGRO division: Fifty years of engagement. AGRO 72, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2020

Impact of climate change on the relevance of TFD studies and OECD crosswalks

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ACS 2020, AGRO 235
Session Title: Sustainability in Agriculture: Understanding the Environmental Footprint of Developing Crop Protection Products
Monday, August 17, 2020 8:00AM

Abstract:

Climate change studies confirm that the earth is warming up and that shifts in rainfall patterns is occurring. Various computer models predict that Earth’s average temperature will rise between 1.8° and 4.0° Celsius (3.2° and 7.2° F). Consequently, these warmer temperatures will cause a higher rate of evaporation, resulting in a predicted increase of average global rainfall by 3-5%. This climate change, therefore, will impact the relevance of historical and current terrestrial field dissipation (TFD) studies. Under OCED guidance, TFD studies conducted in one country can be applicable to other countries if the characteristics of overlapping ecoregions are the same. These assessments are conducted using the OECD ENASGIPS tool. If these characteristics change, so will the similarity assessment and therefore the potential relevance of TFD sites. With increase rainfall, TFD sites in the Southeastern US, which typically have few similar areas, may become more relevant because other areas are receiving more rainfall. Likewise, TFD sites in Canada, characterized by cold winters, may become more applicable to larger areas in Europe with increasing temperature. In this presentation we will review some of the climate change scenarios, place existing TFD sites in context of new climates and determine the impact on OECD crosswalks.

C. Hoogeweg, A. Ritter (Waterborne). Impact of climate change on the relevance of TFD studies and OECD crosswalks. AGRO 235, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2020

Novel approaches for assessing management of tile-drain agricultural chemical transport

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ACS 2020, AGRO 214
Session Title: Off-target Transport of Field Applied Agricultural Chemicals
Monday, August 17, 2020 8:00AM

Abstract:

The study of conservation best management practices and their effectiveness at mitigating the off-site transport of agricultural chemicals is an established research field. While runoff and erosion have received much study focus, there is a growing need for new and novel approaches to monitor nutrients in tile-drained systems. A sophisticated water monitoring system was developed that utilizes technology to create an automated pass-through sampling site, employing state of the art nutrient sensor technology to monitor nitrate concentrations in thirty-seven discrete subsurface agricultural drainage tile laterals at a sampling rate of between two and four hours per sample at each tile. This design has proven highly efficient and provides a data resolution that would be impractical to consider under conventional sampling methods. It also allows for the replicated study of several treatments (different mitigation practice approaches) and control plots, with little additional cost per added plot. Additional benefits include the ability to view data in real-time, allowing researchers to observe real-time rainfall event-based plot responses without the analytical results delay from a laboratory. The developed site data provides the needed resolution for tile drain model validation or developments.

G. Goodwin (Waterborne), L. Gentry (Illinois Corn Growers Association), P. Paulausky, J. Trask, A. Jacobson, A. Ritter (Waterborne). Novel approaches for assessing management of tile-drain agricultural chemical transport. AGRO 214, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

PresentationsCrop Protection2020

Consideration of non-Apis bee species in pollinator risk assessment

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ACS 2020, AGRO 164
Session Title: Extending the Boundaries of Pollinator Research and Risk Assessment Methodologies for Pesticides
Monday, August 17, 2020 8:00AM

Abstract:

The pollinator risk assessment process for pesticides from regulatory agencies, including USEPA, PMRA, and CDPR, have historically relied on the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) as a surrogate species to represent all Apis and non-Apis bees. However, the life-history characteristics of non-Apis bee species, including solitary, stingless, and bumble bees, indicate differences from the surrogate honeybee species. These differences introduce uncertainty in the exposure and effects assumptions for the use of honeybees as a surrogate species, leading to the recent efforts of examining risk of pesticides to non-Apis species. The objective of this presentation is to provide a current state-of-the-science update on the specific life-history characteristics and specific risk assessment considerations for non-Apis species. Exposure assumptions will be examined and comparative toxicological sensitivities will be presented with recommendations for appropriate use in the pollinator risk assessment framework. Challenges in the development of non-Apis laboratory testing methods will also be presented.

J. Collins, J. Jackson, A. Ritter, A. Schmolke (Waterborne). Consideration of non-Apis bee species in pollinator risk assessment. AGRO 164, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Topeka shiner populations in the context of multiple stressors: a hybrid modeling approach

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SETAC 2019, Platform 687
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Integrating Pest Management, Risk Assessment and Environmental Sustainability
Thursday, November 7, 2019
10:00 am, Room 718B

Abstract:
Threatened or endangered species face challenges to their continued existence from multiple stressors. For example, habitat loss and modification were indicated as substantial threats to the Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka), a small cyprinid fish endemic to the US Midwest, when it was listed under the Endangered Species Act. Topeka shiner habitats are associated with intensive row crop agriculture, overgrazing, urbanization, road construction, and hydrologic alteration. However, assessments of risks to the species are usually limited to individual factors, such as direct effects from potential exposures to pesticides. We developed a hybrid modelling approach to assess Topeka shiner population dynamics and viability within the context of multiple factors including physical habitat characteristics, water quality, and land management practices. Topeka shiner habitat restoration efforts in Iowa are focused on restoring oxbows. Therefore, we simulated physical and chemical characteristics of these oxbow habitats, including their food web structure, as well as aspects of Topeka shiner biology and ecology. Land management was modeled indirectly by characterizing associated alterations of environmental inputs to the modeled oxbow. Land management influences included alterations to oxbow hydrology, temperature, light exposure, and influxes of nutrients, sediments, and pesticides. We analyzed scenarios of realistic ranges of these conditions in Iowa oxbows to assess their implications for long-term population dynamics of the Topeka shiner. With this hybrid modeling approach, we present a methodology for integrated assessments of ecological risks posed by land management and benefits of conservation measures designed to recover listed species. This modelling approach is intended to complement endangered species assessment by informing conservation/stewardship activities in an effort to enhance species viability.

A. Schmolke (Waterborne), S. Bartell (Cardno), C. Roy (Waterborne), N. Green (Waterborne), D. Perkins (Waterborne), N. Galic (Syngenta), R. Brain (Syngenta). Topeka shiner populations in the context of multiple stressors: a hybrid modeling approach. Platform 687, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Pop-GUIDE: Population modeling Guidance, Use, Interpretation, and Development for Ecological Risk Assessment

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SETAC 2019, Platform 475
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Incorporating New Approach Methodologies to Improve Ecological Risk Assessment – Part 1
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
11:00 am, Room 718B

Abstract:
The assimilation of population models into the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) process has been hindered by their range of complexity, uncertainty, resource investment, and data availability. Likewise, translating model outputs into endpoints that can be used by risk assessors has been challenging. Recent research efforts have begun to tackle these challenges by creating an integrated Modeling Framework and Decision Guide to aid the development of population models with respect to ERA objectives and data availability. In the Framework, the trade-offs associated with the generality, realism, and precision of an assessment are used to guide the development of a population model commensurate with the protection goal. The Decision Guide provides risk assessors with a stepwise process to assist them in developing a conceptual model that is appropriate for the assessment objective and available data. We have merged the Decision Guide and Modeling Framework into a comprehensive approach for the development of population models for ERA that is applicable across regulatory statutes and assessment objectives. In Phase 1 of Pop-GUIDE (Population modeling Guidance, Use, Interpretation, and Development for Ecological Risk Assessment), an approach is presented to guide assessors through the trade-offs of ERA generality, realism, and precision and translate these trade-offs into model objectives. In Phase 2, available data are assimilated and characterized as general, realistic, and/or precise. Phase 3 provides a series of dichotomous questions to develop a conceptual model that matches the complexity and uncertainty appropriate for the assessment that is in concordance with the available data. This phase guides model developers and users to ensure comprehension and transparency of the modeling process. We introduce Pop-GUIDE using fish as an example taxon and the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) as a regulatory statute example.

S. Raimondo (USEPA), A. Schmolke (Waterborne), C. Accolla (University of Minnesota), J. Awkerman (USEPA), M. Etterson (USEPA), N. Galic (Syngenta), A. Moore (University of Minnesota), M. Vaugeois (University of Minnesota), P. Rueda-Cediel (University of Minnesota), N. Pollesch (USEPA), V. Forbes (University of Minnesota). Pop-GUIDE: Population modeling Guidance, Use, Interpretation, and Development for Ecological Risk Assessment. Platform 475, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Applying the Mechanistic Honey Bee Colony Model BEEHAVE to Inform Large Colony Feeding Study Design

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SETAC 2019, Platform 281
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Pesticides and Pollinators: Assessing Potential Risks at Colony and Population Level
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:40 am, Room 716B

Abstract:
In higher-tier studies aiming to assess pesticide exposure and effects to honey bees at the colony level, other factors can impact colonies and confound the analysis of potential pesticide impacts. Large colony feeding studies (LCFS) are sometimes affected by high losses of control colonies, indicating that stressors such as limited resource availability, weather, diseases and beekeeping activities may be influential. In the current project commissioned by the Pollinator Research Task Force, we assessed the study design and environmental conditions experienced by the untreated control colonies across seven LCFSs. Overwintering success in these control colonies differed considerably among the studies. In addition, the studies differed with respect to initial colony conditions, amount and timing of sugar feeding, landscape composition around study apiaries and weather. We applied the mechanistic colony model BEEHAVE to systematically assess the impact of study design and environmental conditions on control colonies. We first calibrated BEEHAVE to a subset of the studies, validated it with the remaining studies, and then used it to run simulations that changed only one variable at a time. The goal of the project was to inform study design that leads to increased likelihood of control colony overwintering success. From the simulations, the initial status of the colonies as well as the sugar feeding pattern were more important for fall colony condition than resource availability in the landscape and weather. Larger honey stores present in the colonies at study initiation, greater feeding amounts and earlier supplemental feedings (beginning in late summer to early fall) were the main factors that led to larger colony sizes and honey stores in the fall. This information can be used to inform the standardization of a study design, which in turn can increase the likelihood of overwintering survival in untreated controls and help ensure that studies are comparable. This project demonstrates how a mechanistic model can be used to inform study designs for higher-tier effects studies. Mechanistic models like BEEHAVE could further be applied to supplement higher-tier risk assessments, for instance, by extrapolating to non-tested exposure scenarios and environmental conditions and therefore potentially reducing the number of higher-tier studies.

F. Abi-Akar (Waterborne), A. Schmolke (Waterborne), C. Roy (Waterborne), N. Galic (Syngenta), S. Hinarejos (Valent).  Applying the Mechanistic Honey Bee Colony Model BEEHAVE to Inform Large Colony Feeding Study Design. Platform 281, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsHome and Personal Care Products, Water/Wastewater Assessments2019

Development of integrated risk assessment framework and methodology for assessing environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China

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SETAC 2019, Platform 30
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Building Bridges Between Lab-and Field-Derived Data: Methods for the Assessment of Complex Environmental Issues
Monday, November 4, 2019
10:40 am, Room 717B

Abstract:
The new Chinese regulatory chemical management scheme calls for increased development of risk-based assessment framework and tools that can address regional and national needs. Important considerations include identifying chemicals with high potential for adverse impact to humans and the environment early in the assessment, while also recognizing regional differences in the levels of economic and infrastructure development as well as environmental conditions. An integrated, tiered environmental risk assessment framework and methodology was developed for assessing the environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China. The tiers incorporate China’s specific exposure conditions as well as consideration of Chinese native species for effects assessment. The framework starts with a Low Tier utilizing the existing Chinese regulatory qualitative method, whereas Mid-Tier is quantitative using deterministic and probabilistic approaches that account for per capita residential water usage, wastewater treatment capability, as well as wastewater/in-stream dilution factors. A High Tier spatially explicit aquatic exposure model was recently created which leveraged historic work on the iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute). A high-resolution river flow dataset was established based on the Curve Number method (Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture) and further validated by monitoring data. Case studies will be presented for consumer product ingredients which indicate Lower Tiers are conservative with greater environmental realism associated with High Tier methodology. A key aspect for the integrated framework is environmental effects assessment based on Chinese native species, as chemical registrations in China routinely involve local fish testing. The Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) and Chinese Medaka (Oryzias sinensis) are examples of leading local species. This research developed an understanding of the ecology, physiology, and other biological information allowed for the extrapolation between these two species and other OECD standard test species (e.g., zebrafish). We investigated comparative fish acute toxicity using 3,4-Dichloroaniline and NaCl with studies planned on additional chemicals and species. Chinese native species data will be utilized not only for direct hazard assessment but also for the development of statistical extrapolation methods, such as interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models. ICE models use available toxicity data of surrogate species to predict untested species to expand the domains of ecotoxicological information for China’s integrated environmental risk assessments.

M. Fan (P&G), K. McDonough (P&G), S. Belanger (P&G), Z. Liu (Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences), R. Vamshi (Waterborne), S. Csiszar (P&G), J. Menzies (P&G), X. Wang (Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences), K. Kapo (Waterborne).  Development of integrated risk assessment framework and methodology for assessing environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China. Platform 30, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsWater/Wastewater Assessments2019

High-Resolution Global Mean-Annual Surface Runoff And River Flow Datasets For Use In Risk Assessments

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SETAC 2019, Platform 50
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Challenges in Characterizing Exposures to Organic Chemicals: Multiple Sources, Multiple Pathways and Multiple Scales
Monday, November 4, 2019
8:40 am, Room 716B

Abstract:
The availability of detailed surface runoff and river flow data across large geographic areas is crucial for modeling in ecological risk assessments; a few countries (e.g., U.S.) offer such data at a high-resolution and most countries do not. Lack of detailed spatial data and challenges with intense processing have been the limiting factors in developing high-resolution river flows over large spatial scales. iSTREEM®, a broad-scale spatial model in the U.S. incorporates a detailed hydrology network with river flows from the NHDPlus to estimate exposure across large areas from the use of down-the-drain chemicals. It combines WWTP emissions into corresponding flow at receiving rivers to estimate dilution factors and down-the-drain chemical concentrations, and route them through the river network. A similar approach to integrate chemical emissions with a global hydrologic river network and associated flows can be employed to estimate local dilution factors and chemical concentrations across river network over countries where environmental concerns are a high priority. To address this specific need, the well-established Curve Number (CN) method was applied to develop a detailed surface runoff dataset. Publicly available, scientifically accepted and high-resolution global datasets for hydrologic soil groups, land cover, and precipitation were spatially processed by applying the CN equations to generate a contiguous global mean-annual surface runoff grid at a very high-resolution of 50m x 50m. Surface runoff was converted to river flow by spatially combining with a detailed global hydrology of rivers and catchment boundaries from HydroSHEDS and HydroBASINS to estimate mean-annual flows across the global river network. Evaluation of the estimated river flow was conducted against publicly available gage measurements in China and river flows in the Ohio River basin, U.S.; both showed high correlation (r2 = 0.70 for China and 0.97 for Ohio River). Applying the detailed global mean-annual river flows with broad-scale environmental exposure models like iSTREEM® provides a robust approach to assess ecological risk of chemicals used in home and personal care products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, etc. over large river basins, across a country, or at a continental scale.

R. Vamshi (Waterborne), K. McDonough (P&G), K. Stanton (ACI), A. Ritter (Waterborne).  High-Resolution Global Mean-Annual Surface Runoff And River Flow Datasets For Use In Risk Assessments. Poster, SETAC 2019. Platform 50. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.