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PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Topeka shiner populations in the context of multiple stressors: a hybrid modeling approach

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SETAC 2019, Platform 687
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Integrating Pest Management, Risk Assessment and Environmental Sustainability
Thursday, November 7, 2019
10:00 am, Room 718B

Abstract:
Threatened or endangered species face challenges to their continued existence from multiple stressors. For example, habitat loss and modification were indicated as substantial threats to the Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka), a small cyprinid fish endemic to the US Midwest, when it was listed under the Endangered Species Act. Topeka shiner habitats are associated with intensive row crop agriculture, overgrazing, urbanization, road construction, and hydrologic alteration. However, assessments of risks to the species are usually limited to individual factors, such as direct effects from potential exposures to pesticides. We developed a hybrid modelling approach to assess Topeka shiner population dynamics and viability within the context of multiple factors including physical habitat characteristics, water quality, and land management practices. Topeka shiner habitat restoration efforts in Iowa are focused on restoring oxbows. Therefore, we simulated physical and chemical characteristics of these oxbow habitats, including their food web structure, as well as aspects of Topeka shiner biology and ecology. Land management was modeled indirectly by characterizing associated alterations of environmental inputs to the modeled oxbow. Land management influences included alterations to oxbow hydrology, temperature, light exposure, and influxes of nutrients, sediments, and pesticides. We analyzed scenarios of realistic ranges of these conditions in Iowa oxbows to assess their implications for long-term population dynamics of the Topeka shiner. With this hybrid modeling approach, we present a methodology for integrated assessments of ecological risks posed by land management and benefits of conservation measures designed to recover listed species. This modelling approach is intended to complement endangered species assessment by informing conservation/stewardship activities in an effort to enhance species viability.

A. Schmolke (Waterborne), S. Bartell (Cardno), C. Roy (Waterborne), N. Green (Waterborne), D. Perkins (Waterborne), N. Galic (Syngenta), R. Brain (Syngenta). Topeka shiner populations in the context of multiple stressors: a hybrid modeling approach. Platform 687, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Pop-GUIDE: Population modeling Guidance, Use, Interpretation, and Development for Ecological Risk Assessment

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SETAC 2019, Platform 475
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Incorporating New Approach Methodologies to Improve Ecological Risk Assessment – Part 1
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
11:00 am, Room 718B

Abstract:
The assimilation of population models into the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) process has been hindered by their range of complexity, uncertainty, resource investment, and data availability. Likewise, translating model outputs into endpoints that can be used by risk assessors has been challenging. Recent research efforts have begun to tackle these challenges by creating an integrated Modeling Framework and Decision Guide to aid the development of population models with respect to ERA objectives and data availability. In the Framework, the trade-offs associated with the generality, realism, and precision of an assessment are used to guide the development of a population model commensurate with the protection goal. The Decision Guide provides risk assessors with a stepwise process to assist them in developing a conceptual model that is appropriate for the assessment objective and available data. We have merged the Decision Guide and Modeling Framework into a comprehensive approach for the development of population models for ERA that is applicable across regulatory statutes and assessment objectives. In Phase 1 of Pop-GUIDE (Population modeling Guidance, Use, Interpretation, and Development for Ecological Risk Assessment), an approach is presented to guide assessors through the trade-offs of ERA generality, realism, and precision and translate these trade-offs into model objectives. In Phase 2, available data are assimilated and characterized as general, realistic, and/or precise. Phase 3 provides a series of dichotomous questions to develop a conceptual model that matches the complexity and uncertainty appropriate for the assessment that is in concordance with the available data. This phase guides model developers and users to ensure comprehension and transparency of the modeling process. We introduce Pop-GUIDE using fish as an example taxon and the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) as a regulatory statute example.

S. Raimondo (USEPA), A. Schmolke (Waterborne), C. Accolla (University of Minnesota), J. Awkerman (USEPA), M. Etterson (USEPA), N. Galic (Syngenta), A. Moore (University of Minnesota), M. Vaugeois (University of Minnesota), P. Rueda-Cediel (University of Minnesota), N. Pollesch (USEPA), V. Forbes (University of Minnesota). Pop-GUIDE: Population modeling Guidance, Use, Interpretation, and Development for Ecological Risk Assessment. Platform 475, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Applying the Mechanistic Honey Bee Colony Model BEEHAVE to Inform Large Colony Feeding Study Design

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SETAC 2019, Platform 281
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Pesticides and Pollinators: Assessing Potential Risks at Colony and Population Level
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:40 am, Room 716B

Abstract:
In higher-tier studies aiming to assess pesticide exposure and effects to honey bees at the colony level, other factors can impact colonies and confound the analysis of potential pesticide impacts. Large colony feeding studies (LCFS) are sometimes affected by high losses of control colonies, indicating that stressors such as limited resource availability, weather, diseases and beekeeping activities may be influential. In the current project commissioned by the Pollinator Research Task Force, we assessed the study design and environmental conditions experienced by the untreated control colonies across seven LCFSs. Overwintering success in these control colonies differed considerably among the studies. In addition, the studies differed with respect to initial colony conditions, amount and timing of sugar feeding, landscape composition around study apiaries and weather. We applied the mechanistic colony model BEEHAVE to systematically assess the impact of study design and environmental conditions on control colonies. We first calibrated BEEHAVE to a subset of the studies, validated it with the remaining studies, and then used it to run simulations that changed only one variable at a time. The goal of the project was to inform study design that leads to increased likelihood of control colony overwintering success. From the simulations, the initial status of the colonies as well as the sugar feeding pattern were more important for fall colony condition than resource availability in the landscape and weather. Larger honey stores present in the colonies at study initiation, greater feeding amounts and earlier supplemental feedings (beginning in late summer to early fall) were the main factors that led to larger colony sizes and honey stores in the fall. This information can be used to inform the standardization of a study design, which in turn can increase the likelihood of overwintering survival in untreated controls and help ensure that studies are comparable. This project demonstrates how a mechanistic model can be used to inform study designs for higher-tier effects studies. Mechanistic models like BEEHAVE could further be applied to supplement higher-tier risk assessments, for instance, by extrapolating to non-tested exposure scenarios and environmental conditions and therefore potentially reducing the number of higher-tier studies.

F. Abi-Akar (Waterborne), A. Schmolke (Waterborne), C. Roy (Waterborne), N. Galic (Syngenta), S. Hinarejos (Valent).  Applying the Mechanistic Honey Bee Colony Model BEEHAVE to Inform Large Colony Feeding Study Design. Platform 281, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsHome and Personal Care Products, Water/Wastewater Assessments2019

Development of integrated risk assessment framework and methodology for assessing environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China

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SETAC 2019, Platform 30
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Building Bridges Between Lab-and Field-Derived Data: Methods for the Assessment of Complex Environmental Issues
Monday, November 4, 2019
10:40 am, Room 717B

Abstract:
The new Chinese regulatory chemical management scheme calls for increased development of risk-based assessment framework and tools that can address regional and national needs. Important considerations include identifying chemicals with high potential for adverse impact to humans and the environment early in the assessment, while also recognizing regional differences in the levels of economic and infrastructure development as well as environmental conditions. An integrated, tiered environmental risk assessment framework and methodology was developed for assessing the environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China. The tiers incorporate China’s specific exposure conditions as well as consideration of Chinese native species for effects assessment. The framework starts with a Low Tier utilizing the existing Chinese regulatory qualitative method, whereas Mid-Tier is quantitative using deterministic and probabilistic approaches that account for per capita residential water usage, wastewater treatment capability, as well as wastewater/in-stream dilution factors. A High Tier spatially explicit aquatic exposure model was recently created which leveraged historic work on the iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute). A high-resolution river flow dataset was established based on the Curve Number method (Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture) and further validated by monitoring data. Case studies will be presented for consumer product ingredients which indicate Lower Tiers are conservative with greater environmental realism associated with High Tier methodology. A key aspect for the integrated framework is environmental effects assessment based on Chinese native species, as chemical registrations in China routinely involve local fish testing. The Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) and Chinese Medaka (Oryzias sinensis) are examples of leading local species. This research developed an understanding of the ecology, physiology, and other biological information allowed for the extrapolation between these two species and other OECD standard test species (e.g., zebrafish). We investigated comparative fish acute toxicity using 3,4-Dichloroaniline and NaCl with studies planned on additional chemicals and species. Chinese native species data will be utilized not only for direct hazard assessment but also for the development of statistical extrapolation methods, such as interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models. ICE models use available toxicity data of surrogate species to predict untested species to expand the domains of ecotoxicological information for China’s integrated environmental risk assessments.

M. Fan (P&G), K. McDonough (P&G), S. Belanger (P&G), Z. Liu (Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences), R. Vamshi (Waterborne), S. Csiszar (P&G), J. Menzies (P&G), X. Wang (Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences), K. Kapo (Waterborne).  Development of integrated risk assessment framework and methodology for assessing environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China. Platform 30, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsWater/Wastewater Assessments2019

High-Resolution Global Mean-Annual Surface Runoff And River Flow Datasets For Use In Risk Assessments

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SETAC 2019, Platform 50
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Challenges in Characterizing Exposures to Organic Chemicals: Multiple Sources, Multiple Pathways and Multiple Scales
Monday, November 4, 2019
8:40 am, Room 716B

Abstract:
The availability of detailed surface runoff and river flow data across large geographic areas is crucial for modeling in ecological risk assessments; a few countries (e.g., U.S.) offer such data at a high-resolution and most countries do not. Lack of detailed spatial data and challenges with intense processing have been the limiting factors in developing high-resolution river flows over large spatial scales. iSTREEM®, a broad-scale spatial model in the U.S. incorporates a detailed hydrology network with river flows from the NHDPlus to estimate exposure across large areas from the use of down-the-drain chemicals. It combines WWTP emissions into corresponding flow at receiving rivers to estimate dilution factors and down-the-drain chemical concentrations, and route them through the river network. A similar approach to integrate chemical emissions with a global hydrologic river network and associated flows can be employed to estimate local dilution factors and chemical concentrations across river network over countries where environmental concerns are a high priority. To address this specific need, the well-established Curve Number (CN) method was applied to develop a detailed surface runoff dataset. Publicly available, scientifically accepted and high-resolution global datasets for hydrologic soil groups, land cover, and precipitation were spatially processed by applying the CN equations to generate a contiguous global mean-annual surface runoff grid at a very high-resolution of 50m x 50m. Surface runoff was converted to river flow by spatially combining with a detailed global hydrology of rivers and catchment boundaries from HydroSHEDS and HydroBASINS to estimate mean-annual flows across the global river network. Evaluation of the estimated river flow was conducted against publicly available gage measurements in China and river flows in the Ohio River basin, U.S.; both showed high correlation (r2 = 0.70 for China and 0.97 for Ohio River). Applying the detailed global mean-annual river flows with broad-scale environmental exposure models like iSTREEM® provides a robust approach to assess ecological risk of chemicals used in home and personal care products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, etc. over large river basins, across a country, or at a continental scale.

R. Vamshi (Waterborne), K. McDonough (P&G), K. Stanton (ACI), A. Ritter (Waterborne).  High-Resolution Global Mean-Annual Surface Runoff And River Flow Datasets For Use In Risk Assessments. Poster, SETAC 2019. Platform 50. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Leveraging national compensatory mitigation conservation offset strategies to proactively address endangered species section 7 authorized take of residual, unavoidable impacts permitted within national scale pesticide biological options

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ACS 2019, AGRO 371
San Diego, California
Session Title: Interpreting, Communicating & Managing Risk in the FIFRA/ESA Regulatory Setting
Thursday, August 29, 2019
11:10 am, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 3

Abstract:

The release of the three Organophosphate (and pending Carbamate) national scale endangered species assessments have presented new challenges to the USEPA, NMFS, and USFWS. The Biological Evaluations have identified most species as likely to be adversely affected causing extensive and costly Biological Opinions to be generated. These assessments are designed to determine relative potential risk to each species not of the actual impacts to the species, which is what the USFWS and NMFS must evaluate in Endangered Species Act (ESA) Section 7 consultations. A collaborative process is needed to develop a metric for actual impacts resulting from chemical applications taking place within the “best available information” known habitat ranges of listed species so that the Section 7 consultations can be concluded. When impacts are determined the conservation offsets for those residual, unavoidable impacts, can be included in the authorized permit. Industry and the evaluating agencies can protect species populations and promote species recovery simultaneously, while simultaneously assuring agricultural production and food security needs. In some cases, localized use restrictions, buffers, and reduced rates (minimization and avoidance actions) may offer the needed protections for a specific species population. In other cases, conservation offsets, of a similar spatial and temporal nature to the authorized take may meet both needs of species protection and the agricultural use of crop protection products. This presentation will focus on the transfer of extensive experience in leveraging national compensatory mitigation strategies (Clean Water Act Section 404, Endangered Species Act Sections 7 & 10) to mitigate the effect of a permitted action. Through the offsets incorporated in permit authorization, regulatory requirements are met, crop protection products are available for approved usage, and species protection and recovery are addressed. The national and broad potential product application footprint offers challenges, but solutions may be found if all parties involved use creativity and tested approaches to holistically link the species impacts to recovery plans. The effect is to better leverage both the ESA and EPA authorization processes, resulting in improved endangered species viabilities (less listings, increased recoveries) and national scale pesticide risk assessments that are more practically linked to the landscape.

W. White, J. Bickel, N. Snyder (Waterborne).  Leveraging national compensatory mitigation conservation offset strategies to proactively address endangered species section 7 authorized take of residual, unavoidable impacts permitted within national scale pesticide biological options.  Presentation, ACS 2019.  AGRO 371. San Diego, California.

PresentationsCrop Protection

Effect of the VFSMOD pesticide trapping equation on environmental exposure assessments

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ACS 2019, AGRO 136
San Diego, California
Session Title: Off-Target Transport of Field Applied Agricultural Chemicals:  Study Designs, Monitoring, Modelling, & Risk Assessment
Monday, August 26, 2019
3:05 pm, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 5

Abstract:

Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a common land management practice aimed at limiting sediment, nutrient, and pesticide runoff from reaching adjacent surface water bodies. Recently, VFS have been included on label requirements for several pesticides produced in the United States and Europe. However, questions still exist regarding the ability to accurately predict pesticide trapping efficiencies across a range of conditions and how to incorporate predictions of pesticide trapping into environmental exposure assessments. More specifically, the role of VFS in limiting pesticide transport to surface water bodies has yet to be widely implemented as part of the higher-tier risk assessment process in Europe or the United States.
Previous research has proposed a modeling framework that links the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (US-EPA) PWC model (PRZM/VVWM) with a well-tested process-based model for VFS (VFSMOD). The original pesticide trapping efficiency was based on a regression equation based on integrated mechanisms of infiltration and sediment trapping along with factors that accounted for the distribution of pesticide between the solid and dissolved phases and percent clay (Sabbagh equation). Recently, three new pesticide trapping efficiency equations have been developed: two regression-based (reparameterized Sabbagh and Chen) and one mechanistic (mass balance approach). There is still a need to determine the relative importance of the type of trapping equation used within environmental exposure assessments. An analysis of the pesticide trapping efficiency applying the four equations with three US-EPA standard scenarios (California tomato, Illinois corn, and Oregon wheat) will be presented. Such an analysis will provide key information on the impact of the selection of a specific trapping efficiency equation for higher-tier pesticide exposure assessments. Such results will provide a significant piece of information as regulatory agencies across the globe consider how to incorporate the influence of VFS into pesticide risk assessments

R. Munoz-Carpena (University of Florida), G. Fox (North Carolina State University), A. Ritter (Waterborne).  Effect of the VFSMOD pesticide trapping equation on environmental exposure assessments.  Presentation, ACS 2019.  AGRO 136. San Diego, California.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Multi-year field studies evaluating the benefits of vegetative filter strips

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ACS 2019, AGRO 134
San Diego, California
Session Title: Off-Target Transport of Field Applied Agricultural Chemicals:  Study Designs, Monitoring, Modelling, & Risk Assessment
Monday, August 26, 2019
1:55 pm, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 5

Abstract:

Off-target agricultural chemical transport to surface water has been studied under USEPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards for many years to support environmental risk assessment. Field-scale runoff studies provide real-world data to understand the potential environmental exposure, resulting from runoff or erosion of agricultural chemicals. A multi-year field scale runoff study was designed to evaluate vegetative filter strip (VFS) performance under natural rainfall conditions in Missouri, under a corn/soybean crop rotation. The study consists of nine runoff plots with varying, replicated VFSs widths (3 plots each of: 0ft, 15ft, and 30ft). Additionally, plots were instrumented to facilitate future modeling. The runoff collection programming was designed with adherence to NRCS Edge-of-Field Monitoring System Guidance. Design complexities including unattended, refrigerated, runoff sample collection for a multi-year study under natural rainfall conditions will be discussed, and initial data collected from the treatments will be presented.

A. Ritter, F. Abi-Akar, P. Paulausky, G. Goodwin, J. Trask, L. Carver, M. Cox (Waterborne), A. Moore, C. Truman (Syngenta).  Multi-year field studies evaluating the benefits of vegetative filter strips.  Presentation, ACS 2019.  AGRO 134. San Diego, California.

Presentations2019

How ecosystem services credit exchanges allow private companies and public agencies an opportunity to comply with environmental laws, regulations, policies, and guidelines with a cost-effective, environmentally superior outcome

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ACS 2019, AGRO 59
San Diego, California
Session Title: Pest Management Economics:  Present & Future Considerations
Sunday, August 25, 2019
2:20 pm, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 4

Abstract:

Using a system of ecosystem service credits and debits allows for exchanges of new conservation activities to zero out the anticipated negative ecological impacts of human activities on the landscape. In some circumstances, ecosystem offsets are designed to result in an overall biodiversity gain. Offsetting is generally considered the final stage in a mitigation hierarchy, whereby predicted impacts must first be demonstrated to maximize avoidance, then minimize unavoidable impacts before any remaining impacts are offset. The mitigation hierarchy is a step-down approach designed to deliver on the environmental policy principle of “No Net Loss.” Endangered species and habitat offset solutions developed to meet United States regulatory requirements and facilitate the effective permitting of ecological impacts have been in place for decades. This method of exchanging ecosystem credits for like debits can benefit the Environmental Protection Agency’s Endangered Species Act Section 7 pesticide consultations with the USFWS and NMFS. The consultation process is simplified when the proposed impacts are evaluated in concert with proposed high quality, assured offsets of a similar type and duration. This presentation will provide an overview of current habitat offset solutions and how private investment implements restoration and preservation projects that allow private companies and public agencies an opportunity to comply with environmental laws, regulations, policies and guidelines with a cost-effective, environmentally superior outcome. Highlights of the presentation include an overview of current ecosystem market offset solutions available and how these current private market mechanisms can provide solutions for both voluntary and regulated actions facing the crop protection industry. Real world examples from significant projects in California will be highlighted in the presentation.

B. Monaghan (Wildlands), J. Bickel (Waterborne).  How ecosystem services credit exchanges allow private companies and public agencies an opportunity to comply with environmental laws, regulations, policies and guidelines with a cost-effective, environmentally superior outcome. Presentation, ACS 2019. AGRO 59. San Diego, California.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Biphasic sorption and transformation are key factors in the environmental fate of the herbicide monosodium methylarsenate

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ACS 2019, AGRO 27
San Diego, California
Session Title: Creative Thinking in Designing Efate Studies & Data Analysis to Meet Agrochemical Regulatory Challenges
Sunday, August 25, 2019
11:35 am, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 4

Abstract:

Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) is a selective contact herbicide used for post-emergent control of a very broad spectrum of weeds. In water, MSMA dissociates to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and sodium ions (Na+), and it can be metabolized by certain types of soil-dwelling microorganisms to form dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) through methylation, or inorganic arsenate through demethylation. The rate of metabolism decreases with time as a result of increased binding with soil minerals in a biphasic process. Its soil binding potential is proportional to the amorphous iron content of the soil and, to a lesser extent, soil pH – – more specifically, the extent of dissociation (a function of the pKa) – – and clay content. A recent soil column study, combined with a comprehensive analysis of an extensive database of published literature, have provided insight into quantifying and predicting the mechanisms, factors, and sorption kinetics. The sorption chemodynamics of MMA are highly relevant to determine the partitioning of the chemicals into the aqueous phase. The results of the analysis of the biphasic behavior, in the context of multi-factor environmental chemistry, will be presented. This work serves to resolve several of the questions regarding the environmental fate of MSMA.

S. Cohen (Environmental & Turf Services, Inc.), M. Williams (Waterborne), M. Eldan (Luxembourg-Pamol, Inc.), Y. Masue-Slowey (Exponent), P. Miner (Frontage Lab), J.M. Cheplick (Waterborne), and C. Hoogeweg (Waterborne).  Biphasic sorption and transformation are key factors in the environmental fate of the herbicide monosodium methylarsenate. Presentation, ACS 2019. AGRO 27. San Diego, California.