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Publications: 2019

Crop Protection2019

Landscape-scale field studies to evaluate fate and transport of an agricultural fungicide to farm ponds

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ACS 2019, AGRO 97
San Diego, California
Session Title: Off-Target Transport of Field Applied Agricultural Chemicals: Study Designs, Monitoring, Modelling, & Risk
Monday, August 26, 2019
11:05 am, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 5

Abstract:
Landscape-scale field studies were conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of benzovindiflupyr, an SDHI fungicide active ingredient, and its major degradation products from cropped areas to receiving farm ponds. Studies were initiated in two locations; one in Georgia with a cotton/peanut/cucurbit crop rotation and another in Missouri with a corn/soybean crop rotation. Applications were made in 2017 and 2018 seasons at maximum labelled rates and typical timing for the respective crops. Depth-integrated pond water samples and sediment core samples were collected on a monthly basis to evaluate residue concentrations over time. Initial residue results in runoff, pond water, and pond sediment will be presented and compared with relevant ecotoxicological endpoints.

A.M. Moore, T. Wiepke, C. Truman (Syngenta Crop Protection), M. Cox (Waterborne), J.P. Hanzas (Stone Environmental).  Landscape-scale field studies to evaluate fate and transport of an agricultural fungicide to farm ponds.  Presentation, ACS 2019.  AGRO 97. San Diego, California.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Leveraging national compensatory mitigation conservation offset strategies to proactively address endangered species section 7 authorized take of residual, unavoidable impacts permitted within national scale pesticide biological options

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ACS 2019, AGRO 371
San Diego, California
Session Title: Interpreting, Communicating & Managing Risk in the FIFRA/ESA Regulatory Setting
Thursday, August 29, 2019
11:10 am, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 3

Abstract:

The release of the three Organophosphate (and pending Carbamate) national scale endangered species assessments have presented new challenges to the USEPA, NMFS, and USFWS. The Biological Evaluations have identified most species as likely to be adversely affected causing extensive and costly Biological Opinions to be generated. These assessments are designed to determine relative potential risk to each species not of the actual impacts to the species, which is what the USFWS and NMFS must evaluate in Endangered Species Act (ESA) Section 7 consultations. A collaborative process is needed to develop a metric for actual impacts resulting from chemical applications taking place within the “best available information” known habitat ranges of listed species so that the Section 7 consultations can be concluded. When impacts are determined the conservation offsets for those residual, unavoidable impacts, can be included in the authorized permit. Industry and the evaluating agencies can protect species populations and promote species recovery simultaneously, while simultaneously assuring agricultural production and food security needs. In some cases, localized use restrictions, buffers, and reduced rates (minimization and avoidance actions) may offer the needed protections for a specific species population. In other cases, conservation offsets, of a similar spatial and temporal nature to the authorized take may meet both needs of species protection and the agricultural use of crop protection products. This presentation will focus on the transfer of extensive experience in leveraging national compensatory mitigation strategies (Clean Water Act Section 404, Endangered Species Act Sections 7 & 10) to mitigate the effect of a permitted action. Through the offsets incorporated in permit authorization, regulatory requirements are met, crop protection products are available for approved usage, and species protection and recovery are addressed. The national and broad potential product application footprint offers challenges, but solutions may be found if all parties involved use creativity and tested approaches to holistically link the species impacts to recovery plans. The effect is to better leverage both the ESA and EPA authorization processes, resulting in improved endangered species viabilities (less listings, increased recoveries) and national scale pesticide risk assessments that are more practically linked to the landscape.

W. White, J. Bickel, N. Snyder (Waterborne).  Leveraging national compensatory mitigation conservation offset strategies to proactively address endangered species section 7 authorized take of residual, unavoidable impacts permitted within national scale pesticide biological options.  Presentation, ACS 2019.  AGRO 371. San Diego, California.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Addressing multiple factors impacting honey bee colonies in large colony feeding studies with a mechanistic honey bee colony model

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ACS 2019, AGRO 308
San Diego, California
Session Title: Pollinators in Agroecosystems:  Current Science Issues & Risk Assessment Approaches
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
11:30 am, Poster Session

Abstract:

Honey bee Large Colony Feeding Studies (LCFS) are conducted as a novel type of Tier II semi-field study for the determination of potential effects of pesticides on free-foraging whole colonies during and after dietary intake of a known pesticide concentration. This study design represents a progressively more realistic level of refinement compared to individual laboratory-based studies. However, observed winter losses of control colonies indicate that stressors other than pesticides, e.g. resource availability, weather, diseases and beekeeping activities, likely influence colony condition and overwintering survival, confounding the assessment of impacts caused by pesticides. In the current study commissioned by the Pollinator Research Task Force, we apply the mechanistic honey bee colony model BEEHAVE to simulate colony dynamics observed in negative control colonies from multiple colony feeding studies. In the modeling approach, factors impacting colonies can be fully controlled and their impacts on colony condition can be assessed systematically. Study data from control colonies in seven LCFS were available and colony condition data collected in summer and fall were analyzed for predictors of overwintering success of individual colonies. The BEEHAVE simulations were parameterized with apiary-specific data available from the studies, including landscape-level resource availability, weather, initial colony condition and feeding patterns. BEEHAVE was calibrated and validated to simulate reported colony condition across the study period. BEEHAVE simulations with different combinations of external factors were used to assess their importance for colony condition. Colony conditions at study initialization and feeding patterns both influenced the colony condition in the fall, and thus, the probability of overwintering survival. Model simulations with different colony feeding patterns and initial colony conditions were then used to quantitatively estimate colony-level outcomes under conditions deviating from those in the studies. These results provide insight into the importance of factors related to study conditions and can be used to improve and inform LCFS study designs. Pesticide effects can be included in future model analyses, and analyzed in the context of multiple factors that impact colony health and overwintering success.

A. Schmolke, F. Abi-Akar, D. Perkins (Waterborne), N. Galic (Syngenta Crop Protection LLC), S. Hinarejos (Sumitomo Chemical Company Ltd).  Addressing multiple factors imapcting honey bee colonies in large colony feeding studies with a mechanistic honey bee colony model. Poster, ACS 2019.  AGRO 308. San Diego, California.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Common issues in agrochemical risk communication

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ACS 2019, AGRO 290
San Diego, California
Session Title: Environmental Fate, Transport, & DRIFT Modeling of Agrichemicals
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
11:30 am, Poster Session

Abstract:

A great deal of the problems with communicating risk from agrochemical exposure arises from intrinsic uncertainties in exposure and toxicity calculations. The probability of exposure and the meaning of exposure levels and duration are also challenging to express and convey the significance to stakeholders.

D. Barrett (Office of Pesticide Programs, US EPA), M. Williams (Waterborne).  Common issues in agrochemical risk communication.  Poster, ACS 2019.  AGRO 290. San Diego, California.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Multi-year field studies evaluating the benefits of vegetative filter strips

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ACS 2019, AGRO 134
San Diego, California
Session Title: Off-Target Transport of Field Applied Agricultural Chemicals:  Study Designs, Monitoring, Modelling, & Risk Assessment
Monday, August 26, 2019
1:55 pm, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 5

Abstract:

Off-target agricultural chemical transport to surface water has been studied under USEPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards for many years to support environmental risk assessment. Field-scale runoff studies provide real-world data to understand the potential environmental exposure, resulting from runoff or erosion of agricultural chemicals. A multi-year field scale runoff study was designed to evaluate vegetative filter strip (VFS) performance under natural rainfall conditions in Missouri, under a corn/soybean crop rotation. The study consists of nine runoff plots with varying, replicated VFSs widths (3 plots each of: 0ft, 15ft, and 30ft). Additionally, plots were instrumented to facilitate future modeling. The runoff collection programming was designed with adherence to NRCS Edge-of-Field Monitoring System Guidance. Design complexities including unattended, refrigerated, runoff sample collection for a multi-year study under natural rainfall conditions will be discussed, and initial data collected from the treatments will be presented.

A. Ritter, F. Abi-Akar, P. Paulausky, G. Goodwin, J. Trask, L. Carver, M. Cox (Waterborne), A. Moore, C. Truman (Syngenta).  Multi-year field studies evaluating the benefits of vegetative filter strips.  Presentation, ACS 2019.  AGRO 134. San Diego, California.

Presentations2019

How ecosystem services credit exchanges allow private companies and public agencies an opportunity to comply with environmental laws, regulations, policies, and guidelines with a cost-effective, environmentally superior outcome

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ACS 2019, AGRO 59
San Diego, California
Session Title: Pest Management Economics:  Present & Future Considerations
Sunday, August 25, 2019
2:20 pm, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 4

Abstract:

Using a system of ecosystem service credits and debits allows for exchanges of new conservation activities to zero out the anticipated negative ecological impacts of human activities on the landscape. In some circumstances, ecosystem offsets are designed to result in an overall biodiversity gain. Offsetting is generally considered the final stage in a mitigation hierarchy, whereby predicted impacts must first be demonstrated to maximize avoidance, then minimize unavoidable impacts before any remaining impacts are offset. The mitigation hierarchy is a step-down approach designed to deliver on the environmental policy principle of “No Net Loss.” Endangered species and habitat offset solutions developed to meet United States regulatory requirements and facilitate the effective permitting of ecological impacts have been in place for decades. This method of exchanging ecosystem credits for like debits can benefit the Environmental Protection Agency’s Endangered Species Act Section 7 pesticide consultations with the USFWS and NMFS. The consultation process is simplified when the proposed impacts are evaluated in concert with proposed high quality, assured offsets of a similar type and duration. This presentation will provide an overview of current habitat offset solutions and how private investment implements restoration and preservation projects that allow private companies and public agencies an opportunity to comply with environmental laws, regulations, policies and guidelines with a cost-effective, environmentally superior outcome. Highlights of the presentation include an overview of current ecosystem market offset solutions available and how these current private market mechanisms can provide solutions for both voluntary and regulated actions facing the crop protection industry. Real world examples from significant projects in California will be highlighted in the presentation.

B. Monaghan (Wildlands), J. Bickel (Waterborne).  How ecosystem services credit exchanges allow private companies and public agencies an opportunity to comply with environmental laws, regulations, policies and guidelines with a cost-effective, environmentally superior outcome. Presentation, ACS 2019. AGRO 59. San Diego, California.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Biphasic sorption and transformation are key factors in the environmental fate of the herbicide monosodium methylarsenate

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ACS 2019, AGRO 27
San Diego, California
Session Title: Creative Thinking in Designing Efate Studies & Data Analysis to Meet Agrochemical Regulatory Challenges
Sunday, August 25, 2019
11:35 am, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 4

Abstract:

Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) is a selective contact herbicide used for post-emergent control of a very broad spectrum of weeds. In water, MSMA dissociates to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and sodium ions (Na+), and it can be metabolized by certain types of soil-dwelling microorganisms to form dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) through methylation, or inorganic arsenate through demethylation. The rate of metabolism decreases with time as a result of increased binding with soil minerals in a biphasic process. Its soil binding potential is proportional to the amorphous iron content of the soil and, to a lesser extent, soil pH – – more specifically, the extent of dissociation (a function of the pKa) – – and clay content. A recent soil column study, combined with a comprehensive analysis of an extensive database of published literature, have provided insight into quantifying and predicting the mechanisms, factors, and sorption kinetics. The sorption chemodynamics of MMA are highly relevant to determine the partitioning of the chemicals into the aqueous phase. The results of the analysis of the biphasic behavior, in the context of multi-factor environmental chemistry, will be presented. This work serves to resolve several of the questions regarding the environmental fate of MSMA.

S. Cohen (Environmental & Turf Services, Inc.), M. Williams (Waterborne), M. Eldan (Luxembourg-Pamol, Inc.), Y. Masue-Slowey (Exponent), P. Miner (Frontage Lab), J.M. Cheplick (Waterborne), and C. Hoogeweg (Waterborne).  Biphasic sorption and transformation are key factors in the environmental fate of the herbicide monosodium methylarsenate. Presentation, ACS 2019. AGRO 27. San Diego, California.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Waterborne Nutrients Presentation

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Overview of our expertise in Nutrients

PostersCrop Protection2019

Outcomes from an ECETOC task force on geospatial approaches to increasing the ecological relevance of chemical risk assessments

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SETAC Europe 2019, Poster
Helsinki, Finland
Session Title: 4D-Risk Assessment
Monday, May 27, 2019
5:15 pm, Exhibition Hall

Abstract:
For several decades, the prospective risk assessment of chemicals has followed a generic approach of comparing estimated exposures to toxic thresholds designed to be protective of all species (i.e., assessing exposure to the most sensitive species assumed to be located anywhere the chemical may occur in the environment). This approach does not recognise geographic patterns of species distributions or acknowledge that particularly sensitive species may not occupy potentially exposed habitats. Therefore, risk assessments could be overly conservative and restrictive for some uses of chemicals. Approaches for making spatially explicit assessments of chemical exposure are relatively advanced but this is not the case for mapping and assessing ecological data. However, geo-referenced ecological data appear to be increasingly available at spatial resolutions applicable to chemical risk assessment, potentially facilitating enhanced environmental relevance of such risk assessments. In 2017 a Task Force was initiated by European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) to assess the capability of making chemical risk assessments using available geospatially referenced chemical exposure, ecological receptor and ecosystem services data. Two case studies were developed to illustrate the potential to assess geo-referenced risks to ecological receptors in fresh water and terrestrial environments exposed to i) a chemical used in consumer cleaning products discharged via municipal WWTPs across the EU and ii) a range of representative active ingredients used in plant protection products on selected crops in Germany. After initially compiling a catalogue of available geo-referenced ecological data for Europe, geo-referenced exposure concentrations were derived by combining accessible chemical use and fate data with conventional exposure models. However, use of many ecological data sets over a pan-European range proved problematic due to data access issues, limited geographic coverage and unreliable quality. Nevertheless, several suitable ecological data sets were accessed after making specific requests to various organisations within national authorities and these were integrated with the exposure maps. The results of these case studies give an indication of the potential value of making geo-referenced chemical risk assessments as well as the limitations to current capability.

S. Marshall (Consultant), A. Ireland (ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences), J.C. Otte (BASF), L. Maltby (presenter; University of Sheffield), C. Holmes (Waterborne Environmental), and P. Sweeney (Syngenta). Outcomes from an ECETOC task force on geospatial approaches to increasing the ecological relevance of chemical risk assessments. Poster SETAC Europe 2019. Helsinki, Finland.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Applying the mechanistic honey bee colony model BEEHAVE to assess multiple factors impacting overwintering survival in large colony feeding studies

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SETAC Europe 2019, Poster
Helsinki, Finland
Session Title: Bees, bugs and beneficials in environmental risk assessment and testing
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
8:30 am, Exhibition Hall

Abstract:
Honey bee Large Colony Feeding Study (LCFS) is a novel type of Tier II semi-field study for the determination of potential effects of pesticides on free-foraging whole colonies during and after dietary intake of a known pesticide concentration. LCFS are currently accepted by North American regulatory agencies and represent a progressively more realistic level of refinement compared to individual laboratory-based studies. LCFS are designed to test toxicity via consumption of fed sucrose syrup over a worst case exposure scenario of six weeks, with colony assessments conditions over a foraging season and following overwintering period. However, such studies are very cost- and time-intensive, and high overwintering losses of control hives have been observed in some studies. Loss of control colonies indicates that stressors other than pesticides, e.g. resource availability, weather, diseases and beekeeping activities, likely influence colony overwintering survival, confounding the assessment of impacts caused by pesticides. In the current study commissioned by the Pollinator Research Task Force, we apply the mechanistic honey bee colony model BEEHAVE to simulate colony dynamics observed in negative control colonies from multiple colony feeding studies. Detailed landscape-level data inform the resource availability for the simulated foragers in the model. In addition, weather data, initial colony condition and feeding patterns were analyzed across studies and translated to model inputs. In a calibration step, we adjusted parameters in BEEHAVE to achieve simulated dynamics corresponding to colony conditions reported in the studies. Study data collected in summer and fall were analyzed for predictors of overwintering success of individual colonies. BEEHAVE simulations with different combinations of external factors were used to assess their importance for colony condition. Colony conditions at study initialization and feeding patterns both influenced the colony condition in the fall, and thus, the probability of overwintering survival. Model simulations with different colony feeding patterns and initial colony conditions were then used to quantitatively estimate colony-level outcomes under conditions deviating from those in the studies. These results can be used to improve and inform LCFS study designs. Pesticide effects can be included in future model analyses, and analyzed in the context of multiple factors that impact colony health and overwintering success.

Amelie Schmolke (Waterborne Environmental), Farah Abi-Akar (Waterborne Environmental), Nika Galic (Syngenta), Silvia Hinarejos (presenter; Sumitomo Chemical Co.). Applying the mechanistic honey bee colony model BEEHAVE to assess multiple factors impacting overwintering survival in large colony feeding studies. Poster SETAC Europe 2019. Helsinki, Finland.