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Publications: 2020

PresentationsCrop Protection2020

Towards an efficient and improved approach for assessing risks of pesticides to endangered species in the United States: Methomyl case study

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ACS 2020, AGRO 178
Session Title: Integrating Species Conservation with Pesticides from Bench to Market
Available Monday, August 17, 2020 at 8:00am

Abstract:

Under the Endangered Species Act, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Services (National Marine Fisheries Service and Fish & Wildlife Service) are required to assess potential risks to threatened and endangered (listed) species as part of the process to register pesticides. EPA issued interim guidance for developing biological evaluations (BE) for pesticides in 2015. Since then, the EPA, the Services, the regulated community and others have continued to develop and refine national endangered species risk assessment (ESRA) methodologies, first with 3 organophosphates and recently with two carbamates, carbaryl and methomyl. In March 2020, EPA issued revised guidance for conducting BEs. Much, however, remains to be done to develop the most efficient, practical and scientifically defensible approach. Therefore, we are developing an improved scientific approach with methods that more efficiently screen out listed species that are not at risk earlier in the tiered assessment process. The approach begins with simple methods such as off-ramping (e.g., screening out listed species that have no potential for exposure); conservative, protective screening-level risk assessments to screen out entire receptor groups that are tolerant of exposure; and co-occurrence analyses to screen out species not present in pesticide use areas. We are developing spatially explicit, species-specific tools for each major receptor group to determine which listed species are potentially at risk using more advanced, but still protective, methods. Using methomyl as a case study, we demonstrate how these early tier methods can efficiently reduce the formidable scope of a national ESRA to focus on those listed species most at risk. The latter species would then proceed to probabilistic, more refined modeling and proper weight-of-evidence assessments.

D. Moore (Intrinsik), S. Teed (Intrinsik), C. Priest (Stone), M. Winchell (Stone), H. Rathjens (Stone), A. Frank (CSI), J. Giddings (CSI), M. Kern (Balance EcoSolutions), N. J. Snyder (Waterborne), T.M. Blickley (Corteva Agriscience), P.L. Havens (Dow AgroSciences).
Towards an efficient and improved approach for assessing risks of pesticides to endangered species in the United States: Methomyl case study. AGRO 178, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

PostersWater/Wastewater Assessments2020

Geospatial model to estimate microplastics entering waterways from wastewater systems and land applied biosolids

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ACS 2020, AGRO 150
Session Title: Environmental Fate of Agrochemicals

Abstract:

There is a need for exposure models to simulate the pathways and transport of such particles in waterways especially with increasing public awareness about the presence of microplastics in the environment. Microplastics may enter the environment from various sources and in many forms. One source includes personal care products containing plastic particles being washed down residential drains and entering municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A large portion of these plastic particles are removed from the water phase during the treatment process, and generally end up in the solids (i.e., sludge). Sludge disposal varies by country, region and locality, including landfill, incinerator, compost, or as land-applied biosolids. There is potential for particles in biosolid applications to reach aquatic systems depending on application location and subsequent environmental conditions. This poster will present a broad-scale model designed to estimate emissions and model the fate of plastic particles exiting WWTPs into the terrestrial and aquatic environments in Europe. The model uses geospatial information on WWTPs, river hydrology and terrestrial transport potential. This regional/continental scale model is based on publicly available datasets and contained in a modular and transparent framework which is scalable and portable to multiple geographies. This presentation will demonstrate the utility of the model and how the resulting information about ultimate mass disposition (e.g., soil, freshwater, sediment, marine) and concentrations (surface water, sediment) can be used to help inform the discussion about prospectively assessing the presence and concentration of microplastics in the environment as emitted by WWTPs as effluent or transport from fields applied with biosolids.

A. Ritter, C. Roy, C. Hoogeweg (Waterborne), C. Holmes (Applied Analysis Solutions, LLC). Geospatial model to estimate microplastics entering waterways from wastewater systems and land applied biosolids. AGRO 150, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

Presentations2020

Reflections on our AGRO division: Fifty years of engagement

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ACS 2020, AGRO 72
Session Title: Chemistry for Sustainable Agriculture and Public Health: AGRO Evolution and Future Opportunities
Monday, August 17, 2020 8:00AM

Abstract:

This talk will cover AGRO Division’s fifty year relationship with the broader aspects of agrochemical history. We will embark on a historical look back at AGRO’s role as a crucible for discussions of emerging issues in the protection of agricultural productivity, public health and the environment with engagement across industry, academia, and key government agencies. We will highlight key aspects of our division’s governance that have positioned us for meaningful AGRO awards, international participation, student engagement and career development opportunities for all.

As part of the celebration plans, a 50th Timeline Team formed to capture submitted milestones from across our AGRO membership; the results of those efforts inform this talk.

C. Barnett Cleveland (BASF), A.Ritter (Waterborne), T.A. Wehner. Reflections on our AGRO division: Fifty years of engagement. AGRO 72, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

Posters2020

Assessment of potentially vulnerable use areas in western Africa

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ACS 2020, AGRO 46
Session Title: Analysis of Agriculturally-Important Chemicals

Abstract:

The Acetochlor Registration Partnership (ARP; Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto Company) developed voluntary acetochlor Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce the potential for the active substance to reach ground water and surface water. As part of an ongoing global acetochlor stewardship support, a study has been conducted to determine the co-occurrence between acetochlor use on crops and potentially vulnerable soils in the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (French: Comité permanent inter-État de lutte contre la sécheresse au Sahel, aka CILSS) countries. The assessment was focused on high potential use areas of acetochlor, within the CILSS, for two representative crops (corn and cotton). The geospatial analysis performed identified approximately 462 million hectares (ha) of potentially vulnerable soils in the CILSS of which 65.7 million ha of soils are within agricultural areas. Acetochlor product labels approved in the US by the US Environmental Protection Agency, restrict applications on vulnerable soils within 50 feet of any well where depth to ground water is ≤ 9 m. Other agricultural BMPs for applying acetochlor products in the US are designed to minimize run-off to surface water. Approximately 0.24% of agricultural fields (0.159 million ha of soils) in the CILSS are in areas of shallow groundwater. In addition, 0.02 % (0.0128 million ha) were determined to be adjacent to surface water bodies. The analysis provides evidence that only small portions of vulnerable agricultural soils in the CILSS may be at risk for acetochlor contamination by means of leaching to groundwater or surface runoff. The approach could be expanded to other regions to inform water quality management decisions for products containing acetochlor.

C. Hoogeweg (Waterborne), M.A. Thomas (O3A, Monsanto Company), N. Pai (O3A, Monsanto Company), J. Schleier (Dow AgroSciences). Assessment of poentially vulnerable use areas in western Africa. AGRO 46, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2020

Impact of climate change on the relevance of TFD studies and OECD crosswalks

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ACS 2020, AGRO 235
Session Title: Sustainability in Agriculture: Understanding the Environmental Footprint of Developing Crop Protection Products
Monday, August 17, 2020 8:00AM

Abstract:

Climate change studies confirm that the earth is warming up and that shifts in rainfall patterns is occurring. Various computer models predict that Earth’s average temperature will rise between 1.8° and 4.0° Celsius (3.2° and 7.2° F). Consequently, these warmer temperatures will cause a higher rate of evaporation, resulting in a predicted increase of average global rainfall by 3-5%. This climate change, therefore, will impact the relevance of historical and current terrestrial field dissipation (TFD) studies. Under OCED guidance, TFD studies conducted in one country can be applicable to other countries if the characteristics of overlapping ecoregions are the same. These assessments are conducted using the OECD ENASGIPS tool. If these characteristics change, so will the similarity assessment and therefore the potential relevance of TFD sites. With increase rainfall, TFD sites in the Southeastern US, which typically have few similar areas, may become more relevant because other areas are receiving more rainfall. Likewise, TFD sites in Canada, characterized by cold winters, may become more applicable to larger areas in Europe with increasing temperature. In this presentation we will review some of the climate change scenarios, place existing TFD sites in context of new climates and determine the impact on OECD crosswalks.

C. Hoogeweg, A. Ritter (Waterborne). Impact of climate change on the relevance of TFD studies and OECD crosswalks. AGRO 235, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2020

Novel approaches for assessing management of tile-drain agricultural chemical transport

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ACS 2020, AGRO 214
Session Title: Off-target Transport of Field Applied Agricultural Chemicals
Monday, August 17, 2020 8:00AM

Abstract:

The study of conservation best management practices and their effectiveness at mitigating the off-site transport of agricultural chemicals is an established research field. While runoff and erosion have received much study focus, there is a growing need for new and novel approaches to monitor nutrients in tile-drained systems. A sophisticated water monitoring system was developed that utilizes technology to create an automated pass-through sampling site, employing state of the art nutrient sensor technology to monitor nitrate concentrations in thirty-seven discrete subsurface agricultural drainage tile laterals at a sampling rate of between two and four hours per sample at each tile. This design has proven highly efficient and provides a data resolution that would be impractical to consider under conventional sampling methods. It also allows for the replicated study of several treatments (different mitigation practice approaches) and control plots, with little additional cost per added plot. Additional benefits include the ability to view data in real-time, allowing researchers to observe real-time rainfall event-based plot responses without the analytical results delay from a laboratory. The developed site data provides the needed resolution for tile drain model validation or developments.

G. Goodwin (Waterborne), L. Gentry (Illinois Corn Growers Association), P. Paulausky, J. Trask, A. Jacobson, A. Ritter (Waterborne). Novel approaches for assessing management of tile-drain agricultural chemical transport. AGRO 214, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.

PresentationsCrop Protection2020

Consideration of non-Apis bee species in pollinator risk assessment

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ACS 2020, AGRO 164
Session Title: Extending the Boundaries of Pollinator Research and Risk Assessment Methodologies for Pesticides
Monday, August 17, 2020 8:00AM

Abstract:

The pollinator risk assessment process for pesticides from regulatory agencies, including USEPA, PMRA, and CDPR, have historically relied on the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) as a surrogate species to represent all Apis and non-Apis bees. However, the life-history characteristics of non-Apis bee species, including solitary, stingless, and bumble bees, indicate differences from the surrogate honeybee species. These differences introduce uncertainty in the exposure and effects assumptions for the use of honeybees as a surrogate species, leading to the recent efforts of examining risk of pesticides to non-Apis species. The objective of this presentation is to provide a current state-of-the-science update on the specific life-history characteristics and specific risk assessment considerations for non-Apis species. Exposure assumptions will be examined and comparative toxicological sensitivities will be presented with recommendations for appropriate use in the pollinator risk assessment framework. Challenges in the development of non-Apis laboratory testing methods will also be presented.

J. Collins, J. Jackson, A. Ritter, A. Schmolke (Waterborne). Consideration of non-Apis bee species in pollinator risk assessment. AGRO 164, ACS 2020. Virtual Meeting.