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PresentationsHome and Personal Care Products2015

A Global Exposure Model for Down the Drain Chemicals: A Case Study and Initial Evaluations

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The global use of a range of home and personal care products is increasing and this trend is likely to continue for the foreseeable future, as growth in emerging markets in South America, Africa and Asia continues. Industry has a responsibility to assess the environmental safety of chemicals used in consumer goods in all markets, not only in regions where regulations exist. Using spatially explicit data sets we present a global model, the Scenario Assembly Tool (ScenAT) to predict in-river concentrations of chemicals used in home and personal care (HPC) products. Here we present a case study and some initial evaluations looking at China and US using a selection of HPC ingredients. Key aims are to (a) present the ScenAT model and updates (b) present evaluation of model using monitoring data.

Chris Holmes, Raghu Vamshi, Vivienne Sclater, Katherine Kapo, Juliet Hodges, Oliver Price, John Kilgallon, Antonio Franco. “A Novel Exposure Model for Chemicals Used Globally in HPC Products: A Case Study and Evaluation”. SETAC EUROPE, May 2015.

PostersHome and Personal Care Products2015

Advancements in the Assessment of Micropollutants Through the Application of Broad-Scale “Down-The-Drain” Exposure Modelling

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Municipal wastewater effluent is a major exposure route for a wide range of “down-the-drain” chemicals that are treated and discharged to natural water bodies. Exposure models that focus on estimating concentrations of effluent-associated chemicals in receiving waters can serve as a valuable screening-level tool for risk assessment of micropollutants and other potential environmental stressors. iSTREEM®, a web-based model made freely available to the public by the American Cleaning Institute (www.istreem.org), provides a means to estimate concentrations of “down-the-drain” chemicals in effluent, receiving waters, and drinking water intakes across national and regional scales under mean annual and low (7Q10) flow conditions in the United States. The development and evolution of the iSTREEM® model reflects recent trends in technical, conceptual and practical aspects of “down-the-drain” exposure modelling to address current challenges and needs, such as assessment over broad geographies, incorporation of variablity, geo-referencing of modelling components, and accessibility and enhanced utility for end-users.

Katherine E. Kapo, Raghu Vamshi, Chris Holmes, Paul DeLeo, Darci Ferrer. “Advancements in the Assessment of Micropollutants Through the Application of Broad-Scale “Down-The-Drain” Exposure Modelling” May 2015 SETAC EU, Poster.

PostersHome and Personal Care Products2015

A Critical Review of the Biotransformation of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane(D4) and Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane(D5) in Fish

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Biotransformation is an important physiological process whereby a fish can convert a chemical to a more polar form so that it may be eliminated from the whole body. An understanding of the potential for a chemical to be biotransformedprovides important information for a bioaccumulation assessment. Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane(D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane(D5) are widely used in consumer products and industrial applications. These two siloxaneshave a high octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow> 6), which is suggestive of a high aqueous bioconcentrationfactor (BCF). Several studies employing high performance liquid radiochromatographydemonstrate that D4 and D5 siloxaneare biotransformedinto more polar metabolites. A third in vivo study employed whole body autoradiography (WBA) and found that a bulk of the 14C-D4 and D5 radioactivity was associated with the liver, gall bladder and digestive tract during and after exposure. In vitro microsomal studies suggest that 14C-D5 was biotransformed by rainbow trout, while minimal biotransformation was observed with common carp and channel catfish. Using these data-sets, an estimated kmfor D4 and D5 siloxaneis > 0.01 day-1. Based on the available data, there is conclusive evidence that D5 siloxaneis biotransformedto more polar metabolites in fish. This biotransformation is important and provides rationale for D4 and D5 biodilutionbehavior generally observed in aquatic food webs (i.e. a TMF < 1).

Duane B. Huggett. “A Critical Review of the Biotransformation of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane(D4) and Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane(D5) in Fish”. May 2015 SETAC EU, Poster.

Papers & ReportsHome and Personal Care Products, Water/Wastewater Assessments2015

Mixing Zone and Drinking Water Intake Dilution Factor and Wastewater Generation Distributions to Enable Probabilistic Assessment of Down-The-Drain Consumer Product Chemicals in the U.S.

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Environmental exposure and associated ecological risk related to down-the-drain chemicals discharged by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are strongly influenced by in-stream dilution of receiving waters which varies by geography, flow conditions and upstream wastewater inputs. The iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute, Washington D.C.) was utilized to determine probabilistic distributions for no decay and decay-based dilution factors in mean annual and low (7Q10) flow conditions. The dilution factors derived in this study are “combined” dilution factors which account for both hydrologic dilution and cumulative upstream effluent contributions that will differ depending on the rate of in-stream decay due to biodegradation, volatilization, sorption, etc. for the chemical being evaluated. The median dilution factors estimated in this study (based on various in-stream decay rates from zero decay to a 1 h half-life) for WWTP mixing zones dominated by domestic wastewater flow ranged from 132 to 609 at mean flow and 5 to 25 at low flow, while median dilution factors at drinking water intakes (mean flow) ranged from 146 to 2 × 107 depending on the in-stream decay rate. WWTPs within the iSTREEM® model were used to generate a distribution of per capita wastewater generated in the U.S. The dilution factor and per capita wastewater generation distributions developed by this work can be used to conduct probabilistic exposure assessments for down-the-drain chemicals in influent wastewater, wastewater treatment plant mixing zones and at drinking water intakes in the conterminous U.S. In addition, evaluation of types and abundance of U.S. wastewater treatment processes provided insight into treatment trends and the flow volume treated by each type of process. Moreover, removal efficiencies of chemicals can differ by treatment type. Hence, the availability of distributions for per capita wastewater production, treatment type, and dilution factors at a national level provides a series of practical and powerful tools for building probabilistic exposure models.

Katherine E. Kapo, Kathleen McDonough, Thomas Federle, Scott Dyer, Raghu Vamshi, 15 June 2015. “Mixing Zone and Drinking Water Intake Dilution Factor and Wastewater Generation Distributions to Enable Probabilistic Assessment of Down-The-Drain Consumer Product Chemicals in the U.S.”. Science of the Total Environment, Volumes 518–519, pp. 302-309. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.105

PresentationsHome and Personal Care Products, Human Pharmaceuticals2014

Recent Developments in Exposure Modeling of “Down-the-Drain“ Chemicals Across Multiple Product Groups

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To promote product stewardship and regulatory compliance for chemical suppliers and manufacturers of formulated home and personal care products, an environmental fate model, iSTREEM®, was created. Although iSTREEM® is owned by the American Cleaning Institute, its capabilities expand beyond cleaning products. Any chemical that will be disposed of “down-the-drain” can be modelled with this application, including those in personal care products, pharmaceuticals and home use pesticides and disinfectants.

iSTREEM® is a web-based publicly available computer model (www.istreem.org) that calculates the concentration of chemicals from consumer products disposed of “down-the-drain” in the influent and effluent of more than 10,000 municipal wastewater treatment plants in the United States. In addition, the concentrations can be calculated in receiving streams at the point of effluent discharge (mixing zone), downstream of effluent discharge, and at the point of drinking water intake for more than 25,000 river reaches in the U.S.

Recently, iSTREEM® was expanded to include densely populated portions of Southern Ontario in Canada. By adding the Lower St. Lawrence watershed to the model, examination of the complete Great Lakes watershed is now possible.

A description of the process for acquisition and management of the Canadian datasets for flow of effluent-impacted streams in Southern Ontario and the relevant facilities (wastewater treatment plants and drinking water plants) will be provided. Particular emphasis will be given to the development of the flow data, and corroboration of the concentration data generated by simulation with local monitoring data for relevant chemicals.

Katherine E. Kapo, Chris Holmes, Raghu Vamshi, Paul DeLeo, Darci Ferrer. Recent Developments in Exposure Modeling of “Down-the-Drain“ Chemicals Across Multiple Product Groups. SETAC NA, 2014 platform.

Papers & ReportsHome and Personal Care Products2014

Combining High-Resolution Gross Domestic Product Data With Home and Personal Care Product Market Research Data to Generate a Subnational Emission Inventory for Asia

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Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1 km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population’s ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (<500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the maximum deviation from baseline (emission distributed via population) is less than a factor of 3 and it would not result in significant differences in chemical risk assessments. However, for other product types (>500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical management policies in emerging markets.

Hodges, J. E. N., Vamshi, R., Holmes, C., Rowson, M., Miah, T. and Price, O. R. 2014. “Combining High-Resolution Gross Domestic Product Data With Home and Personal Care Product Market Research Data to Generate a Subnational Emission Inventory for Asia”. Integr Environ Assess Manag, 10: 237–246. doi: 10.1002/ieam.1476.

Papers & ReportsWater/Wastewater Assessments2014

Hydraulic “Fracking”: Are Surface Water Impacts an Ecological Concern?

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Use of high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) in unconventional reservoirs to recover previously inaccessible oil and natural gas is rapidly expanding in North America and elsewhere. Although hydraulic fracturing has been practiced for decades, the advent of more technologically advanced horizontal drilling coupled with improved slickwater chemical formulations has allowed extensive natural gas and oil deposits to be recovered from shale formations. Millions of liters of local groundwaters are utilized to generate extensive fracture networks within these low-permeability reservoirs, allowing extraction of the trapped hydrocarbons. Although the technology is relatively standardized, the geographies and related policies and regulations guiding these operations vary markedly. Some ecosystems are more at risk from these operations than others because of either their sensitivities or the manner in which the HVHF operations are conducted. Generally, the closer geographical proximity of the susceptible ecosystem to a drilling site or a location of related industrial processes, the higher the risk of that ecosystem being impacted by the operation. The associated construction of roads, power grids, pipelines, well pads, and water-extraction systems along with increased truck traffic are common to virtually all HVHF operations. These operations may result in increased erosion and sedimentation, increased risk to aquatic ecosystems from chemical spills or runoff, habitat fragmentation, loss of stream riparian zones, altered biogeochemical cycling, and reduction of available surface and hyporheic water volumes because of withdrawal-induced lowering of local groundwater levels. The potential risks to surface waters from HVHF operations are similar in many ways to those resulting from agriculture, silviculture, mining, and urban development. Indeed, groundwater extraction associated with agriculture is perhaps a larger concern in the long term in some regions. Understanding the ecological impacts of these anthropogenic activities provides useful information for evaluations of potential HVHF hazards. Geographic information system–based modeling combined with strategic site monitoring has provided insights into the relative importance of these and other ecoregion and land-use factors in discerning potential HVHF impacts. Recent findings suggest that proper siting and operational controls along with strategic monitoring can reduce the potential for risks to aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, inadequate data exist to predict ecological risk at this time. The authors suggest considering the plausibility of surface water hazards associated with the various HVHF operations in terms of the ecological context and in the context of relevant anthropogenic activities. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:1679–1689. © 2014 SETAC

Burton, G. A., Basu, N., Ellis, B. R., Kapo, K. E., Entrekin, S. and Nadelhoffer, K. (2014), Hydraulic “Fracking”: Are surface water impacts an ecological concern?. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 33: 1679–1689. doi: 10.1002/etc.2619

PostersCrop Protection, Water/Wastewater Assessments2014

Implementing National-Scale Proximity Analyses with Efficiency & Reliability

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Performing a National Threatened and Endangered Species Risk assessment for each pesticide registration action is daunting. The scale, both geographically, temporally, and the sheer number of species, presents a challenge. Add to this the fact that data sets and approaches will be refined moving forward, but current registration efforts cannot be delayed. To effectively perform Proximity Analyses at Step 1, a process which is computationally efficient, technically accurate for the scale, and robust enough to handle changing data sets must be developed. This poster demonstrates an approach to address these challenges. Using authoritative geospatial data from government sources, a National Potential Pesticide Use Site Layer is generated which can be easily updated as new data are released annually. The potential pesticide use site layer is used in a framework that allows for Flexible Action Area Definition and subsequent National Proximity Analysis of 100’s of Species at a Time. Furthermore, Downstream Transport must be accounted for when calculating proximity to Aquatic Species. By using existing Automation and Scripting methods within ArcGIS and SQL Server, the framework can be reapplied as needed (such as availability of newer data), and also provides a source of documentation at each step of the process. This poster illustrates an approach to Implementing National-Scale Proximity Analyses with Efficiency & Reliability and Results.

Joshua J. Amos, Vivienne L. Sclater, and Christopher M. Holmes. Implementing National-Scale Proximity Analyses with Efficiency & Reliability. SETAC North America 35th Annual Meeting, Vancover, B.C. November 14, 2014.

PostersAgriculture and Food2014

Data Mining Strategies For Species Life History Characteristics to Support Population Modeling in Endangered Species Risk Assessment

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Population modeling has been identified as a valuable tool to support risk assessment of listed threatened and endangered species. While a variety of population (and more generally, ecological) modeling approaches and platforms exist, their application is frequently limited to a small number of specific species having an abundance of toxicity and life history data available in the literature and/or generated in parallel to the development of a particular model. Conversely, national-scale endangered species assessment may initially identify a large number of species that may be potentially impacted based on an initial proximity assessment of species locations and chemical exposure. This disparity points to the need for evaluating similarities in available life history characteristics across multiple species to identify relevant groupings of species as well as the data-rich species (endangered or non-endangered) which are the most appropriate surrogates for one or more endangered species of interest for a given risk scenario in population modeling. Starting with high-level taxonomic classifications and using a combination of data synthesis and quantitative clustering techniques, we demonstrate an approach for organizing available basic life history information to “drill down” to species characteristics and groupings most relevant to a given risk scenario, and/or a given species of interest. This process can yield useful information to optimize the design and implementation of population modeling (and the risk assessment process in general) by providing a systematic means to focus technical resources on species of greatest relevance to the goals of a particular assessment. While further evaluation and data collection from literature and other sources is often a necessary component in the development of population models, this process can be made more efficient through the application of effective filtering tools.

Katherine E. Kapo, Matthew E. Kern, Joshua Amos, Chris M. Holmes, Nathan Snyder. Data Mining Strategies For Species Life History Characteristics to Support Population Modeling in Endangered Species Risk Assessment. SETAC North America 35th Annual Meeting, Vancover, B.C. November 14, 2014.

PostersAgriculture and Food2014

Advancing Effective Screening and Probabilistic Approaches in Endangered Species Risk Assessments

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The confluence of the protection goals of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA) presents many challenges for environmental risk assessment for pesticide registrations. A deterministic approach has traditionally been used for FIFRA national scale assessments, where point estimates of exposure and effects are used to produce risk quotients which are compared against arbitrary levels of concern (LOQ). This approach allows for relative toxicity, exposure and risk comparisons across chemicals, and may include both screening level and refined approaches allowing the assessor to focus on taxonomic groups of concern. Under ESA, the assessment methods employed are undergoing rapid development with a focus on the protection of individual organisms and populations. These developments have been influenced largely by the National Research Council (NRC) committee recommendations (2013) which were incorporated into an interim approach outlined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Marine Fisheries Service, and the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The NRC recommendations included a preference for probabilistic over deterministic approaches for risk assessment for endangered species to enable the evaluation of likelihood and magnitude of risk across species. However, given the practical challenge of national-scale assessments and high numbers of species to consider, effective screening techniques are still needed to direct risk assessment and risk management resources to the species at greatest potential risk relative to a stressor of interest. We explore various applications of screening and probabilistic approaches throughout the risk assessment process to effectively target taxonomic groups and species of potential concern and evaluate and characterize risk. These methods employ data evaluation and filtering techniques (including proximity analysis), weight of evidence approaches for qualitative and quantitative data and methods for including uncertainty in the assessment. The objective is to advance the risk assessment process for listed threatened and endangered species by providing a more comprehensive and practical perspective on species risk compared to traditional approaches.

Matthew E. Kern, Katherine E. Kapo,  Joshua Amos, Megan Sebasky, Christopher M. Holmes, Gregg A. Hancock, Nathan Snyder. Advancing Effective Screening and Probabilistic Approaches in Endangered Species Risk Assessments. SETAC North America 35th Annual Meeting, Vancover, B.C. November 14, 2014.