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PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Applying the Mechanistic Honey Bee Colony Model BEEHAVE to Inform Large Colony Feeding Study Design

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SETAC 2019, Platform 281
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Pesticides and Pollinators: Assessing Potential Risks at Colony and Population Level
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:40 am, Room 716B

Abstract:
In higher-tier studies aiming to assess pesticide exposure and effects to honey bees at the colony level, other factors can impact colonies and confound the analysis of potential pesticide impacts. Large colony feeding studies (LCFS) are sometimes affected by high losses of control colonies, indicating that stressors such as limited resource availability, weather, diseases and beekeeping activities may be influential. In the current project commissioned by the Pollinator Research Task Force, we assessed the study design and environmental conditions experienced by the untreated control colonies across seven LCFSs. Overwintering success in these control colonies differed considerably among the studies. In addition, the studies differed with respect to initial colony conditions, amount and timing of sugar feeding, landscape composition around study apiaries and weather. We applied the mechanistic colony model BEEHAVE to systematically assess the impact of study design and environmental conditions on control colonies. We first calibrated BEEHAVE to a subset of the studies, validated it with the remaining studies, and then used it to run simulations that changed only one variable at a time. The goal of the project was to inform study design that leads to increased likelihood of control colony overwintering success. From the simulations, the initial status of the colonies as well as the sugar feeding pattern were more important for fall colony condition than resource availability in the landscape and weather. Larger honey stores present in the colonies at study initiation, greater feeding amounts and earlier supplemental feedings (beginning in late summer to early fall) were the main factors that led to larger colony sizes and honey stores in the fall. This information can be used to inform the standardization of a study design, which in turn can increase the likelihood of overwintering survival in untreated controls and help ensure that studies are comparable. This project demonstrates how a mechanistic model can be used to inform study designs for higher-tier effects studies. Mechanistic models like BEEHAVE could further be applied to supplement higher-tier risk assessments, for instance, by extrapolating to non-tested exposure scenarios and environmental conditions and therefore potentially reducing the number of higher-tier studies.

F. Abi-Akar (Waterborne), A. Schmolke (Waterborne), C. Roy (Waterborne), N. Galic (Syngenta), S. Hinarejos (Valent).  Applying the Mechanistic Honey Bee Colony Model BEEHAVE to Inform Large Colony Feeding Study Design. Platform 281, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersCrop Protection2019

The utility of a weight-at-emergence endpoint in the 22-day larval assay for a pollinator risk assessment

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SETAC 2019, TP274
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Pesticides and Pollinators: Assessing Potential Risks at Colony and Population Level
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
USEPA has identified the 22-day honey bee larval assay as a Tier 1, screening-level toxicity study for assessing pesticide risk to bees. This repeat-dose larval study is based on the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidance Document 239, and methodology provided by Schmehl et al.(2016). During this study, first instar larvae are transferred from healthy colonies to grafting cells (day 1) and treated diet is administered between days 3 and 6. Survival is assessed at multiple stages of the test: daily between days 4 and 8 for larvae; day 15 for pupae; and day 22 (emergence time) for adults. However, at the request of the USEPA, adult weight at emergence has also been included as a study endpoint. The Pollinator Research Task Force (PRTF) is conducting an endpoint evaluation to compare the sensitivity of adult weight at emergence to that of the survival endpoint in this study design. A database was developed based on anonymized study data from PRTF member companies, as well as applicable studies from the open literature. The compiled data were evaluated both empirically and statistically with regard to endpoint sensitivity. Statistically significant effects based on survival and adult weight at emergence were compared. No- and Lowest-Observed-Effect Dose (NOED and LOED) values, as well as 50% lethal and effect dose (LD50 and ED50) values were also compared between the endpoints. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were compared graphically and statistically to quantify the variability in each metric and determine significant differences. A pairing structure was also used to assess correlation, which could be graphed and statistically analyzed. This presentation outlines the methods used during this project, the results of the endpoint analyses, and concluding findings on the endpoint sensitivity comparison between survival and adult weight at emergence.

B. Sharma (FMC), D. Schmehl (Bayer), J. Collins (Waterborne), F. Abi-Akar (Waterborne), J. Jackson (Waterborne).  The utility of a weight-at-emergence endpoint in the 22-day larval assay for a pollinator risk assessment. Poster, SETAC 2019. TP274. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Practical Advancements in Endangered Species Risk Assessment Efficiency

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SETAC 2019, TP253
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Ecological Risk Assessment: What Matters and Prioritization of Resources
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
With the release of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) organophosphate case studies for endangered species risk assessment, it became clear that the methods used in the biological evaluations and biological opinion need refinement for identifying risk to listed species and the critical habitat on which they may depend. With hundreds of pesticide registration actions annually, and more than 1,660 species listed under the Endangered Species Act, it is critical to be able to conduct a scientifically defensible risk assessment efficiently with limited time and resources. However, confidence must be high that the listed species or the critical habitat on which they depend can readily be identified as being not at risk, or at potential risk. The recently released EPA revised method for developing biological evaluations addresses some aspects of these short comings, by recognizing early in the problem formulation process that some listed species will not be exposed to a pesticide for a variety of reasons (e.g., they are extinct or extirpated; only found on federal lands). However, there are many possible additional considerations that matter, can be accounted for, and may vary on a pesticide by pesticide basis. These include label restrictions, simple spatial refinement, specific fate/behavior characteristics, listed species life history information, known and previously evaluated pesticide tolerances, and other factors. In a CropLife America funded project, these practical advancements are being identified and evaluated for use in the problem formulation process. In this presentation, the carbamate pesticide carbaryl is used to evaluate the impact of these factors on the endangered species risk assessment process, along with examples from other chemistries to more clearly show their utility.

S. Teed (Intrinsik), M. Kern (Waterborne), J. Cowles (TKI).  Practical Advancements in Endangered Species Risk Assessment Efficiency. Poster, SETAC 2019. TP253. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersWater/Wastewater Assessments2019

Modeling aquatic and terrestrial transport pathways for microplastics entering WWTP systems

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SETAC 2019, TP144
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Microplastics in the Environment: Transport, Fate and Ecological Effects
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
Microplastics may enter the environment from a number of sources and in many forms. Plastic particles may be present as influent into municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A large portion of these are removed from the water phase during the treatment process, and generally end up in the solids (i.e., sludge). Sludge disposal varies by country, region and locality, including landfill, incinerator, compost, or as land-applied biosolids. There is potential for particles in biosolid applications to reach aquatic systems depending on application location and subsequent environmental conditions. We present a broad-scale model designed to estimate emissions and model the fate of plastic particles exiting WWTPs into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, using spatially-explicit information on WWTPs, river hydrology and terrestrial transport potential. This regional/continental scale model is based on publicly available datasets and contained in a modular and transparent framework which is scalable and portable to multiple geographies. This presentation will demonstrate the utility of the model as applied to different regions, and how the resulting information about ultimate mass disposition within the environment (e.g., soil, freshwater, sediment, marine) and surface water concentrations can be examined to help inform the discussion about prospectively assessing the presence and concentration of microplastic particles in the environment as emitted by WWTPs.

C. Holmes (Applied Analysis Solutions), J. Amos (Waterborne), S. Dyer (Waterborne). Modeling aquatic and terrestrial transport pathways for microplastics entering WWTP systems. Poster, SETAC 2019. TP144. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsHome and Personal Care Products, Water/Wastewater Assessments2019

Development of integrated risk assessment framework and methodology for assessing environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China

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SETAC 2019, Platform 30
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Building Bridges Between Lab-and Field-Derived Data: Methods for the Assessment of Complex Environmental Issues
Monday, November 4, 2019
10:40 am, Room 717B

Abstract:
The new Chinese regulatory chemical management scheme calls for increased development of risk-based assessment framework and tools that can address regional and national needs. Important considerations include identifying chemicals with high potential for adverse impact to humans and the environment early in the assessment, while also recognizing regional differences in the levels of economic and infrastructure development as well as environmental conditions. An integrated, tiered environmental risk assessment framework and methodology was developed for assessing the environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China. The tiers incorporate China’s specific exposure conditions as well as consideration of Chinese native species for effects assessment. The framework starts with a Low Tier utilizing the existing Chinese regulatory qualitative method, whereas Mid-Tier is quantitative using deterministic and probabilistic approaches that account for per capita residential water usage, wastewater treatment capability, as well as wastewater/in-stream dilution factors. A High Tier spatially explicit aquatic exposure model was recently created which leveraged historic work on the iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute). A high-resolution river flow dataset was established based on the Curve Number method (Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture) and further validated by monitoring data. Case studies will be presented for consumer product ingredients which indicate Lower Tiers are conservative with greater environmental realism associated with High Tier methodology. A key aspect for the integrated framework is environmental effects assessment based on Chinese native species, as chemical registrations in China routinely involve local fish testing. The Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) and Chinese Medaka (Oryzias sinensis) are examples of leading local species. This research developed an understanding of the ecology, physiology, and other biological information allowed for the extrapolation between these two species and other OECD standard test species (e.g., zebrafish). We investigated comparative fish acute toxicity using 3,4-Dichloroaniline and NaCl with studies planned on additional chemicals and species. Chinese native species data will be utilized not only for direct hazard assessment but also for the development of statistical extrapolation methods, such as interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models. ICE models use available toxicity data of surrogate species to predict untested species to expand the domains of ecotoxicological information for China’s integrated environmental risk assessments.

M. Fan (P&G), K. McDonough (P&G), S. Belanger (P&G), Z. Liu (Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences), R. Vamshi (Waterborne), S. Csiszar (P&G), J. Menzies (P&G), X. Wang (Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences), K. Kapo (Waterborne).  Development of integrated risk assessment framework and methodology for assessing environmental safety of chemicals disposed down the drain in China. Platform 30, SETAC 2019. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PresentationsWater/Wastewater Assessments2019

High-Resolution Global Mean-Annual Surface Runoff And River Flow Datasets For Use In Risk Assessments

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SETAC 2019, Platform 50
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Challenges in Characterizing Exposures to Organic Chemicals: Multiple Sources, Multiple Pathways and Multiple Scales
Monday, November 4, 2019
8:40 am, Room 716B

Abstract:
The availability of detailed surface runoff and river flow data across large geographic areas is crucial for modeling in ecological risk assessments; a few countries (e.g., U.S.) offer such data at a high-resolution and most countries do not. Lack of detailed spatial data and challenges with intense processing have been the limiting factors in developing high-resolution river flows over large spatial scales. iSTREEM®, a broad-scale spatial model in the U.S. incorporates a detailed hydrology network with river flows from the NHDPlus to estimate exposure across large areas from the use of down-the-drain chemicals. It combines WWTP emissions into corresponding flow at receiving rivers to estimate dilution factors and down-the-drain chemical concentrations, and route them through the river network. A similar approach to integrate chemical emissions with a global hydrologic river network and associated flows can be employed to estimate local dilution factors and chemical concentrations across river network over countries where environmental concerns are a high priority. To address this specific need, the well-established Curve Number (CN) method was applied to develop a detailed surface runoff dataset. Publicly available, scientifically accepted and high-resolution global datasets for hydrologic soil groups, land cover, and precipitation were spatially processed by applying the CN equations to generate a contiguous global mean-annual surface runoff grid at a very high-resolution of 50m x 50m. Surface runoff was converted to river flow by spatially combining with a detailed global hydrology of rivers and catchment boundaries from HydroSHEDS and HydroBASINS to estimate mean-annual flows across the global river network. Evaluation of the estimated river flow was conducted against publicly available gage measurements in China and river flows in the Ohio River basin, U.S.; both showed high correlation (r2 = 0.70 for China and 0.97 for Ohio River). Applying the detailed global mean-annual river flows with broad-scale environmental exposure models like iSTREEM® provides a robust approach to assess ecological risk of chemicals used in home and personal care products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, etc. over large river basins, across a country, or at a continental scale.

R. Vamshi (Waterborne), K. McDonough (P&G), K. Stanton (ACI), A. Ritter (Waterborne).  High-Resolution Global Mean-Annual Surface Runoff And River Flow Datasets For Use In Risk Assessments. Poster, SETAC 2019. Platform 50. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

PostersHome and Personal Care Products, Water/Wastewater Assessments2019

Moving toward a spatially-resolved global surface water flow and aquatic exposure model for consumer-use down-the-drain ingredients: Japan case study

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SETAC 2019, MP123
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Session Title: Challenges in Characterizing Exposures to Organic Chemicals: Multiple Sources, Multiple Pathways and Multiple Scales
Monday, November 4, 2019
8:00 am, Exhibit Hall

Abstract:
Exposure assessment is a key factor in the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of consumer products that are disposed down-the-drain and involves estimating concentrations of ingredients in receiving waters. There is an opportunity to develop a globally-harmonized spatially explicit aquatic exposure model for down-the-drain ingredients by leveraging the growing availability of computational methods and large spatial datasets. Current models often assume average conditions across a country/region in a deterministic calculation, while, in reality, there can be substantial spatial variation in input parameters (e.g., emissions, per capita water use, and waste water treatment) across a region. While spatial variability has been addressed by some models, they have focused on a single country/region; and there is a need for a user-friendly, global aquatic exposure model on a single platform with a consistent approach, using best available data. The iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute) is a spatially-explicit aquatic exposure model parameterized and evaluated primarily for the United States. The model has also been extended to China and evaluation has indicated excellent agreement between modeled and measured river flow data. There was also excellent agreement between case study modeled and monitored chemical concentrations. This platform was leveraged and extended to cover Japan and follows a framework that uses global datasets to estimate river flow on a catchment level, rout chemicals between catchments, and estimate catchment-specific concentrations. Each catchment is parameterized with a specific population, per capita water use, and waste water treatment plant (WWTP) information; and allows for spatial variation in emissions. For Japan, spatial locations of WWTPs were incorporated into the model and the resulting population served by WWTP treatment corresponds well with published reports of treatment levels. Direct discharge of grey water was included to represent current practice in some areas of Japan. Measured river flow data and case study chemicals with available monitoring data were used to evaluate the flow predictions and concentration distributions estimated by the model. Thus, this model framework provides a promising platform for expansion as a global aquatic exposure model for down-the-drain ingredients.

S. Csiszar (P&G), R. Vamshi (Waterborne), M. Fan (P&G), K. McDonough (P&G).  Moving toward a spatially-resolved global surface water flow and aquatic exposure model for consumer-use down-the-drain ingredients: Japan case study. Poster, SETAC 2019. MP123. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Crop Protection2019

Landscape-scale field studies to evaluate fate and transport of an agricultural fungicide to farm ponds

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ACS 2019, AGRO 97
San Diego, California
Session Title: Off-Target Transport of Field Applied Agricultural Chemicals: Study Designs, Monitoring, Modelling, & Risk
Monday, August 26, 2019
11:05 am, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 5

Abstract:
Landscape-scale field studies were conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of benzovindiflupyr, an SDHI fungicide active ingredient, and its major degradation products from cropped areas to receiving farm ponds. Studies were initiated in two locations; one in Georgia with a cotton/peanut/cucurbit crop rotation and another in Missouri with a corn/soybean crop rotation. Applications were made in 2017 and 2018 seasons at maximum labelled rates and typical timing for the respective crops. Depth-integrated pond water samples and sediment core samples were collected on a monthly basis to evaluate residue concentrations over time. Initial residue results in runoff, pond water, and pond sediment will be presented and compared with relevant ecotoxicological endpoints.

A.M. Moore, T. Wiepke, C. Truman (Syngenta Crop Protection), M. Cox (Waterborne), J.P. Hanzas (Stone Environmental).  Landscape-scale field studies to evaluate fate and transport of an agricultural fungicide to farm ponds.  Presentation, ACS 2019.  AGRO 97. San Diego, California.

PresentationsCrop Protection2019

Leveraging national compensatory mitigation conservation offset strategies to proactively address endangered species section 7 authorized take of residual, unavoidable impacts permitted within national scale pesticide biological options

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ACS 2019, AGRO 371
San Diego, California
Session Title: Interpreting, Communicating & Managing Risk in the FIFRA/ESA Regulatory Setting
Thursday, August 29, 2019
11:10 am, Ballroom 20B-D, Theater 3

Abstract:

The release of the three Organophosphate (and pending Carbamate) national scale endangered species assessments have presented new challenges to the USEPA, NMFS, and USFWS. The Biological Evaluations have identified most species as likely to be adversely affected causing extensive and costly Biological Opinions to be generated. These assessments are designed to determine relative potential risk to each species not of the actual impacts to the species, which is what the USFWS and NMFS must evaluate in Endangered Species Act (ESA) Section 7 consultations. A collaborative process is needed to develop a metric for actual impacts resulting from chemical applications taking place within the “best available information” known habitat ranges of listed species so that the Section 7 consultations can be concluded. When impacts are determined the conservation offsets for those residual, unavoidable impacts, can be included in the authorized permit. Industry and the evaluating agencies can protect species populations and promote species recovery simultaneously, while simultaneously assuring agricultural production and food security needs. In some cases, localized use restrictions, buffers, and reduced rates (minimization and avoidance actions) may offer the needed protections for a specific species population. In other cases, conservation offsets, of a similar spatial and temporal nature to the authorized take may meet both needs of species protection and the agricultural use of crop protection products. This presentation will focus on the transfer of extensive experience in leveraging national compensatory mitigation strategies (Clean Water Act Section 404, Endangered Species Act Sections 7 & 10) to mitigate the effect of a permitted action. Through the offsets incorporated in permit authorization, regulatory requirements are met, crop protection products are available for approved usage, and species protection and recovery are addressed. The national and broad potential product application footprint offers challenges, but solutions may be found if all parties involved use creativity and tested approaches to holistically link the species impacts to recovery plans. The effect is to better leverage both the ESA and EPA authorization processes, resulting in improved endangered species viabilities (less listings, increased recoveries) and national scale pesticide risk assessments that are more practically linked to the landscape.

W. White, J. Bickel, N. Snyder (Waterborne).  Leveraging national compensatory mitigation conservation offset strategies to proactively address endangered species section 7 authorized take of residual, unavoidable impacts permitted within national scale pesticide biological options.  Presentation, ACS 2019.  AGRO 371. San Diego, California.

PostersCrop Protection2019

Addressing multiple factors impacting honey bee colonies in large colony feeding studies with a mechanistic honey bee colony model

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ACS 2019, AGRO 308
San Diego, California
Session Title: Pollinators in Agroecosystems:  Current Science Issues & Risk Assessment Approaches
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
11:30 am, Poster Session

Abstract:

Honey bee Large Colony Feeding Studies (LCFS) are conducted as a novel type of Tier II semi-field study for the determination of potential effects of pesticides on free-foraging whole colonies during and after dietary intake of a known pesticide concentration. This study design represents a progressively more realistic level of refinement compared to individual laboratory-based studies. However, observed winter losses of control colonies indicate that stressors other than pesticides, e.g. resource availability, weather, diseases and beekeeping activities, likely influence colony condition and overwintering survival, confounding the assessment of impacts caused by pesticides. In the current study commissioned by the Pollinator Research Task Force, we apply the mechanistic honey bee colony model BEEHAVE to simulate colony dynamics observed in negative control colonies from multiple colony feeding studies. In the modeling approach, factors impacting colonies can be fully controlled and their impacts on colony condition can be assessed systematically. Study data from control colonies in seven LCFS were available and colony condition data collected in summer and fall were analyzed for predictors of overwintering success of individual colonies. The BEEHAVE simulations were parameterized with apiary-specific data available from the studies, including landscape-level resource availability, weather, initial colony condition and feeding patterns. BEEHAVE was calibrated and validated to simulate reported colony condition across the study period. BEEHAVE simulations with different combinations of external factors were used to assess their importance for colony condition. Colony conditions at study initialization and feeding patterns both influenced the colony condition in the fall, and thus, the probability of overwintering survival. Model simulations with different colony feeding patterns and initial colony conditions were then used to quantitatively estimate colony-level outcomes under conditions deviating from those in the studies. These results provide insight into the importance of factors related to study conditions and can be used to improve and inform LCFS study designs. Pesticide effects can be included in future model analyses, and analyzed in the context of multiple factors that impact colony health and overwintering success.

A. Schmolke, F. Abi-Akar, D. Perkins (Waterborne), N. Galic (Syngenta Crop Protection LLC), S. Hinarejos (Sumitomo Chemical Company Ltd).  Addressing multiple factors imapcting honey bee colonies in large colony feeding studies with a mechanistic honey bee colony model. Poster, ACS 2019.  AGRO 308. San Diego, California.