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PostersCrop Protection2021

Estimating the Range Shift of Beetle Occurrence Using Species Distribution Modeling – an Application in the Climate Change Perspective

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With a changing climate, many species including agricultural pests are likely to shift their geographical ranges. This has important implications for pest management and crop yields. How could this shift look like for major pests? To get an idea for a specific example, we analyze the occurrence data of the spotted cucumber beetle (SCB), a significant pest to cucurbit crops in the US. The purpose is to (i) explore the presence of suitable habitat in the USA and (ii) project the habitat suitability to the future, considering different climate change scenarios. The work is performed using a flexible and open platform for modeling species niches and distributions. To build a species distribution model, data on species occurrence (locations where the species was observed) and environmental conditions relevant to the species across the US have to be retrieved and processed. For our analysis, we used the dataset of the SCB occurrences from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the environmental data from WorldClim. After processing these datasets, we performed a partition of occurrence data to test the accuracy of the predictive model. Subsequently, we ran the species distribution model which is based on a machine learning algorithm that estimates the species response to the environment. Model outputs show the relative abundance or probability of occurrence over space (the USA) and time (projections to 2070). We tested two different scenarios of climate change using the intermediate RCP4.5 scenario and the worst case RCP 8.5 scenario. Results suggest that there will be areas of estimated range loss of SCB (Southeast US, Southern Texas) and areas of estimated range expansion (Northeast, Northern parts of the Midwest, Eastern regions of CA, and the Pacific North West) in both climate scenarios, suggesting that the species could become a major pest in regions where it is currently absent or occurring at low abundances.

SETAC North America 2021. Session: Late Breaking Science: Terrestrial Toxicology, Ecology and Stress Response (3.20.03)

G. Hoogeweg, J.M. Jackson, C. Accolla, B.H. Kent, A. Schmolke, A. Ritter (Waterborne). Estimating the Range Shift of Beetle Occurrence Using Species Distribution Modeling – an Application in the Climate Change Perspective.

PostersCrop Protection2021

Screening-Level Pollinator Risk Assessment for Trisiloxane Polyether Surfactants

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Pollinator risk assessment process is primarily focused on active ingredients of agricultural chemicals. However, recent scientific interest is growing regarding the potential impact of the inert ingredients of end-use agricultural products. One class of these ‘inerts’ is trisiloxanes, which represent superspreader surfactants. Superspreaders have unique properties which significantly reduce the surface tension of water to promote a rapid spreading of aqueous solutions on the surfaces of leaves. Application of the screening-level risk assessment process for these chemicals poses the challenges of conservatively quantifying exposure and determination of toxicological endpoints. This presentation addresses methodologies employed to conservatively quantify exposure in order to apply the screening-level pollinator risk assessment framework for three trisiloxane polyether surfactants. Two methodologies to estimate exposure are employed here, including estimation of maximum pollinator-relevant residues from magnitude of residues studies, as well as queried data analyses from the CDPR Pesticide Use Registry (PUR) database, which has included adjuvant use entries since its inception. The results from an effects characterization for larval and adult stage honeybees (Apis mellifera) with the exposure quantification to run the BeeREX model for evaluation of Tier 1 screening-level risk. The estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and effects endpoints are used to calculate risk quotients for comparison to the defined levels of concern for pollinator risk assessment. Overall screening-level risk assessment findings will be presented along with an uncertainty analysis.

SETAC North America 2021. Session: Terrestrial Toxicology, Ecology and Stress Response (3.08.01)

Collins, J., Schmolke, A. (Waterborne).  Screening-Level Pollinator Risk Assessment for Trisiloxane Polyether Surfactants.

PostersPresentationsHome and Personal Care Products2021

Use of an Eco-Epidemiology Approach to Assess Potential Risks of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors, Including UV Filters, to Coral Community Status in Hawaii

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In the past few years, questions have been raised regarding the environmental safety of some UV filters used in personal, skin care and beach products to corals. In some cases (e.g., Hawaii, Key West, Palau) regulatory actions have been precautionary, leading to bans. Unfortunately, no regulatory authority has explicitly attempted to quantify the impacts of UV filters on corals relative to other forms of pollution or environmental factors. Eco-epidemiology is a methodology that considers species and communities as affected by complex combinations of multiple physical, chemical, and environmental conditions over time. This study assembled a large set of natural and human influenced factors (including potential risks of UV filters) along with coral cover data for the Hawaiian Island of Oahu to assess the potential adverse effects of UV filters on corals within the context of other factors. All data were spatially analyzed using a geographic information system. Principal component analyses were used to determine the relationships of coral ecological data to natural and anthropogenic factors. Results indicated that coral cover could be explained via species diversity and abundance. These aspects and all other factors were then correlated to each other to determine if some factors could act as proxies for each other (e.g., beach visitors as a proxy for UV filters) and if any factors appeared to be highly related to coral diversity and abundance. Wave power, sea surface temperatures and sedimentation were shown to be highly correlated to coral ecological status. Statistically significant regressions for coral diversity included temperature anomalies and wave power, both of which addressed the vast majority of the variance. UV filters did not significantly contribute to decreases in coral diversity. Regressions for coral abundance indicated that sewage effluent and sedimentation were more significant than UV filter hazards. Hence, it appears that UV filter hazards do not significantly address reduced coral diversity and abundance whereas wave power, temperature and sedimentation appear as the dominant factors affecting coral ecological status.

SETAC North America 2021. Session: UV Filters in Aquatic Ecosystems (2.12.04)

R. Vamshi, S.D. Dyer, B.H. Kent, F. Abi-Akar (Waterborne), C.M. Holmes (Applied Analysis Solutions), N.S. Green (Kennesaw State University, I. Davies (Personal Care Products Council). Use of an Eco-Epidemiology Approach to Assess Potential Risks of Natura and Anthropogenic Factors, Including UV Filters, to Coral Community Status in Hawaii.

PresentationsCrop Protection2021

Screening-level pollinator risk assessment for trisiloxane polyether surfactants (Part II): Effects and risk characterization

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ACS 2021, AGRO Division, Zoom Room 03
Session Title: Screening-level pollinator risk assessment for trisiloxane polyether surfactants (Part II): Effects and risk characterization
Thursday, August 26, 2021, 05:25 pm – 05:50 pm USA/Canada – Eastern

The screening-level pollinator risk assessment for three trisiloxane polyether surfactants will expand on the exposure characterization presented in Part I. In this phase, the ecotoxicological effects of three trisiloxane polyether surfactants were evaluated and incorporated with the exposure characterization to evaluate risk. The US EPA model, BeeREX, was used to conduct a Tier I screening-level model assessment to generate risk quotients for comparison against levels of concern. The effects characterization included a review of endpoints from acute and chronic laboratory studies for both larval and adult stage honeybees (Apis mellifera) following published OECD test guidelines. Estimated residue concentrations calculated in Part I were compared to the relevant acute and chronic endpoints (acute 50% lethal dose, LD50 and chronic no-observed-effect dose, NOED) from several GLP toxicology studies to determine the risk quotients (RQs) for this assessment. This presentation will include a comparison of calculated RQs and to defined regulatory levels of concern for pollinator risk assessment, as well as a discussion of the uncertainty analysis.

 

J. Collins (Waterborne). Screening-level pollinator risk assessment for trisiloxane polyether surfactants (Part II): Effects and risk characterization. AGRO, ACS 2021. Virtual Meeting.

PresentationsCrop Protection2021

Screening-level pollinator risk assessment for trisiloxane polyether surfactants (Part I): Challenges and methodologies for estimating exposure of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

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ACS 2021, AGRO Division, Zoom Room 03
Session Title: Screening-level pollinator risk assessment for trisiloxane polyether surfactants (Part I): Challenges and methodologies for estimating exposure of honeybees (Apis mellifera)
Thursday, August 26, 2021, 05:00 pm – 05:25 pm USA/Canada – Eastern

The pollinator risk assessment framework laid out by US EPA, PRMA, and CDPR (2014) is primarily focused on pesticide active ingredients. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the potential impact, if any, to human health and the environment of inert ingredients (i.e., non-pesticidally active components of pesticide products) and chemical substances used as tank mix adjuvants and surfactants. Trisiloxane polyethers represent a class of superspreader surfactants with the unique ability of significantly reducing the surface tension of water to promote a rapid spreading of aqueous solutions on the surfaces of leaves. Since limited data is available regarding routes of exposure to honeybees from trisiloxanes, there are some challenges in the evaluation of exposure characterization. The objective of this presentation is to layout the challenges in the exposure characterization of three trisiloxane polyether surfactants and discuss various methodologies employed to conservatively quantify exposure for use in a screening-level pollinator risk assessment framework for these surfactants. The BeeREX Tier I screening-level risk assessment model uses maximum application rates to estimate worst-case exposure concentrations in various honeybee matrices via model default residue assumptions, for instances where available residue data are not available. The model also provides a refinement option using available residue data. The CDPR Pesticide Use Registry (PUR) database was used to determine reasonable maximum surfactant application rates, which were modeled to determine worst-case exposure rates using default residue assumptions. In addition, refined exposure estimates were determined by incorporating surfactant residues generated in a field residue study.

J. Collins (Waterborne), A. Schmolke (Waterborne)

Screening-level pollinator risk assessment for trisiloxane polyether surfactants (Part I): Challenges and methodologies for estimating exposure of honeybees (Apis mellifera) AGRO, ACS 2021

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

Overview of the chemical degradation kinetics pathway tool and practical considerations for its application for model inputs

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ACS 2021, AGRO Division, Zoom Room 04
Session Title: Overview of the chemical degradation kinetics pathway tool and practical considerations for its application for model inputs
Monday, August 23, 2021, 10:35 am – 11:00 am USA/Canada – Eastern

Reliable chemical degradation tools for modeling kinetic pathways are imperative to conducting accurate human health and environmental risk assessments. While the EU FOCUS organization has extensive guidance for conducting the analysis and software tools have been developed in many iterations (CAKE, KinGUII, Model Maker, etc), the USEPA has not formally released tools or guidance for pathway modeling. In 2020, the USEPA included a kinetics software tool, Deg Kinetics v 2.8.2, for kinetic evaluation of chemical degradation data for applications in drinking water assessments with several evaluations. This Excel based solver serves as a useful tool for modeling single first order chemical pathways and evaluation of degradation within the pathway as an input into the typical exposure models used by USEPA, PMRA, and state agencies. This presentation will utilize the Deg Kinetics v 2.8.2 tool in the context of real-world application of the tool as a comparison of its setup, inputs, and parameter selection to that of other FOCUS typical kinetics tools. Finally, this presentation will provide an overview of methods for combining data from multiple datasets as inputs into the model framework – specifically regarding considerations with rapidly degrading parent to daughter and granddaughter compounds and the impact on model predictions.

P. Paulausky (Waterborne), A. Ritter (Waterborne), N. Snyder (Waterborne). Overview of the chemical degradation kinetics pathway tool and practical considerations for its application for model inputs. AGRO, ACS 2021, Virtual Meeting

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

Collection of water monitoring data: Working in the spirit of GLPs

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ACS 2021, AGRO Division, Zoom Room 04
Session Title: Collection of water monitoring data: Working in the spirit of GLPs
Monday, August 23, 2021, 07:25 pm – 07:45 pm USA/Canada – Eastern

Over time the accessibility and processes used for the collection of water monitoring data has changed. The days of transcription from laboratory reports are becoming minimal and electronic data files from comprehensive databases are becoming more commonplace, which requires new approaches for data reproducibility and documentation. Over the past decade, water monitoring data have been collected under the “spirit of the GLPs” in its documentation, reproducibility, and archival. While all aspects of the GLP program are not required, critical steps throughout the data collection and processing follow the underlying principles of the GLPs. As more electronic data were collected from a variety of sources, the process of how to standardize these data increased in complexity. Challenges such as data transformation, traceability, and connections to historic data needed to be addressed to ensure data quality and to answer questions from regulators. In addition, we have continued to enhance our data processing protocols to ensure consistency in data handling, analysis, and documentation of uncertainty. For studies in which GLPs are not necessarily required by a sponsor, we explore an approach of operating under the “spirit of the GLPs” to ensure that monitoring data processes and summarization are repeatable, traceable and provide confidence around electronic data processing and archival similar to those electronic data collected under GLP programs.

J. Trask (Waterborne), L. Johnson (Waterborne), J. Crider (Waterborne)

Collection of water monitoring data: Working in the spirit of GLPs. AGRO, ACS 2021, Virtual Meeting

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable agricultural areas in the Ukraine

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ACS 2021, AGRO Division, Zoom Room 02
Session Title: Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable agricultural areas in the Ukraine
Monday, August 23, 2021, 05:50 pm – 06:15 pm USA/Canada – Eastern

GIS overlay methods such as vulnerability index methods are frequently used to assess the relative vulnerability of groundwater or surface water to contaminants. The application of these methods is driven in large part by data availability, and assessor expertise and familiarity. This may result in a bias in the models as certain criteria are over- or underemphasized; for example, pesticide behavior is often ignored in commonly used index methods, where environmental factors such as pH and organic carbon have been shown to affect the local vulnerability of groundwater and surface water. Furthermore, vulnerability index methods may feature subjective weights and rankings, which increases the likelihood of bias. Two new index methods using a standardized approach are introduced and applied to determine groundwater and surface water vulnerability for corn production areas in the Ukraine. For groundwater, the following parameters were included: average annual rainfall, topsoil sand content, topsoil organic carbon content, topsoil pH, drainage class and depth to groundwater. For surface water, key variables included slope, days with more than 25.4 mm of rainfall, topsoil available water capacity, topsoil organic carbon content, topsoil pH and drainage class. A weighting schema was developed for each of the variables. Weights ranged from 1 to 6, with 1 being the lowest weight and 6 being the highest weight and were based on six percentile classes. This has the advantage that the distribution of variables is accounted for and are unbiased, and that the method can be easily applied to other regions to provide a systematic and transparent assessment approach. Using this approach, the maximum vulnerability score is 36 and the results show the relative vulnerability for both groundwater and surface water. For groundwater, 12.7% of the total agricultural areas fall in the upper percentile class (>83.3%) of vulnerability and have scores 26 – 33. For surface water 13.2% of the total agricultural areas falling into the upper percentile class and have scores 26 – 35. The maximum attainable vulnerable score of 36 was not achieved in either assessment.

 

C. Hoogeweg (Waterborne), N. Peranginangin (Syngenta), R. Krueger (Waterborne), A. Ritter (Waterborne)

Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable surface water areas in the Ukraine. AGRO, ACS 2021, Virtual Meeting

PresentationsAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable surface water areas in Brazil

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ACS 2021, AGRO Division, Zoom Room 02
Session Title: Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable surface water areas in Brazil
Monday, August 23, 2021 05:25 pm – 05:50 pm USA/Canada – Eastern

Brazil’s diverse agricultural landscape poses challenges to assess the impact of agricultural chemicals due to the differences in climate, unique soils, and agricultural management practices across the country. The aim of this project was to determine areas in Brazil that are currently under soybean production and potentially vulnerable to surface water runoff. Potential vulnerable areas were determined by conducting a GIS overlay of soils, climate, and topography data within likely soybean production areas. Potential vulnerable areas were defined as areas having soils with high levels of clay and rainfall with steep slopes, soils low in water holding capacity, and/or poor drainage. The results from this assessment can be used to select potential vulnerable areas for detailed exposure modeling using regulatory accepted environmental fate models. The municipalities with the highest soybean production are located in Mato Grosso (Central Brazil), Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande Do Sul in southern Brazil. The lowest runoff index was calculated to be 11 and the highest 35. Areas with lower runoff potential are found throughout Brazil and are more prevalent than high runoff potential areas. When the runoff index dataset is filtered to the soybean production areas, regions in Santa Catarina, Paraná and Goiás all have areas with a high (>27) runoff index. This indicates that compared to other soybean producing regions, these areas are more likely to be vulnerable to runoff. Only 9.24% of the soybean regions fall in the highest runoff vulnerability class, having an index of 27 or greater. The majority, 70.66%, of the areas fall within the median range of vulnerability (index 16 – 26). The frequency distribution chart of runoff vulnerability indices shows a bi-modal distribution. The theoretical highest vulnerability value of 42 was never reached in this assessment.

C. Hoogeweg (Waterborne), M. Urban (Syngenta), J. Schulze-Aurich (Syngenta), W. Phelps (Syngenta), A. Cione (Syngenta), A. Ritter (Waterborne). Using GIS overlay methods to determine vulnerable surface water areas in Brazil. AGRO, ACS 2021. Virtual Meeting

PostersAgriculture and Food, Crop Protection2021

A Novel Approach for Estimating Flow During Submerged Tile Conditions

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ASABE 2021 Annual Meeting, July 2021

Session:  Natural Resource and Environmental Systems (#23 Drainage Group)

Abstract: Accurate tile flow rate and flow volume estimates are critical to estimating subsurface nutrient runoff. Efforts have been made to improve the accuracy and ease of flow estimates during free flow conditions using water level control structures paired with weirs and water level instrumentation. However, in fields experiencing submerged tile conditions, few options exist for estimating tile flow beyond installing velocity-based flow instrumentation, which is often cost-prohibitive. This work proposes a method for estimating flow rate and volume during submerged tile conditions by taking into account flow proportion of monitored and unmonitored tile laterals based on field flow lines, assessing the proportion of tile main runoff attributed to each lateral using historical free-flowing event data, and applying the new lateral flow proportions in conjunction with weir equations to produce a modified flow calculation. This method is applied to a sample field research site with 45 total tile laterals (18 monitored, 27 unmonitored) using water level data for flow events between 2017-2020.

Authors:  Patricia Paulausky, Farah Abi-Akar, Russell Krueger (Waterborne Environmental), Laura Gentry (Illinois Corn Growers Association), Gregory Goodwin (Waterborne Environmental).  ASABE 2021 Annual International Meeting.